Textbook Notes (367,993)
Canada (161,547)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 11

PSYC39: Chapter 11 Notes

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David Nussbaum

Chapter 11Female OffendersGirls and women commit substantially less crime and particularly less serious and less violent crimes as compared to boys and men In 2005 approximately 20 of people accused of a Criminal Code offence in Canada were female Women account for only 16 of all charges filed against adult offenders in Canada However they do account for a relatively higher proportion 23 of property chargesMales also outnumber females in all forms of nonviolent crime with the exception of prostitutionWhile males still outpace females in theft convictions by a ratio of 3 to 1 this gender disparity is markedly smaller relative to all other forms of nonviolent and violent crimesBoys were twice as likely to report engaging in violent behaviour over their lifetime 30 than girls 15 However the gender gap narrowed considerably when youth were asked about nonviolent crimes against property 30 for boys vs 26 for girls MoffitCaspi reported that the maletofemale ratio for individuals classified as adolescent limited was only 151 In contrast the maletofemale ratio for individuals described as lifecourse persistent was considerably higher101The motivation circumstances and context of their females crimesdiffer markedly than that of their male counterpartsFemales were markedly more likely to have murdered an intimate partner or family member 60 relative to their male counterparts 20Females were less likely to have murdered a stranger 1 in 14 than males 1 in 4When females murder an intimate partner they often appear to do so in response to domestic violence whereas males appear to be acting out of jealousy infidelity desertion and controlWhile still low compared to male youth the rate of serious violent crime among female youth has more than doubled since 1986 growing from 60 per 100000 to 132 per 100000 in 2005 120 increase in females compared to a 101 increase in males It has been convincingly argued that girls are not becoming more violent but that changes in criminal justice practices and policies have artificially inflated the statisticsMoral Panic Hypothesis Rare yet highly sensationalized incidents of girlperpetrated violence created panic or anxiety among the general populace This panic leads to the belief that all girls are out of control and need to be restrained using informal ex suspensions for hurtful gossip and formal mechanisms ex more formal policing The moral panic hypothesis also argues that underlying reason for mass societal anxiety is not because girls have become more violent but because of the emergence of feminism Feminism has not only lead to greater equality in the workplace and increased girl power it has also eroded patriarchal norms and gender conformity which in turn has allowed for the emergence of the nasty girlIt has been suggested that women commit property crime out of economic necessity while men commit property crime as a means of adventure and status enhancement
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