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PSYC39H3 (201)
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Chapter 4

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Psychology and The Law4222012Chapter 4Linking Theories to PracticeChanging Criminal Behavior1Utilitarian model suggests that people engage in criminal behavior because crime pays and to reduce crime its costs must increaseHowever the refined model states that criminality can be decreased when the rewards for crime are reduced and the costs for crime are increased while the rewards for prosocial behavior are increased and the costs for prosocial behavior are decreasedUSfocuses on increasing individual costs to crime as a deterrent Canadais beginning to focus on severe punishment despite the evidence that rehabilitative approach is much more effectivePunishment vs Rehabilitative ProgramsAPunishmentHard and realisticThose who commit crimes are badCriminals are unlikely to change Criminals need to be dealt with more strictlyThe costs and consequences of committing crimes need to be made as serious as possibleBRehabilitationSoft and liberalThose who commit crimes are no different than othersCriminals have the capacity to change and reformOffenders have grown up in adverse surroundings and need to be presented better opportunitiesPurposes of SentencingSection 718 of Canadian Criminal codethe fundamental purposes of sentencing are to ensure respect for the law and maintenance of a just peaceful and safe societyTo denounce unlawful conductTo remove offenders from societyTo assist in rehabilitation of offendersTo provide reparation to victimsTo promote a sense of responsibility in offendersRetribution asserts that society has the right when harmed to harm the offenderThis harm or punishment should correspond with severity of the crime From an administration of justice perspective retribution is not necessarily intended to address issue at the individual levelIncapacitation the application of crime control by removing offenders ability to commit crimes by incarcerating them
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