Textbook Notes (363,137)
Canada (158,217)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYC39H3 (201)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1,2,3,4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING Chapter 1: Introduction Basic Concepts What is a Test? - A test is a measurement device or a technique used to quantify behaviour, or aid in the understanding and prediction of behaviour o Ex. A spelling bee - A test measures only a sample of behaviour, and error is always associated with a sampling process - Test scores are not perfect measures of a behaviour or characteristic. - An item is a specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly (can be scored or evaluated o Ex. Graded, counted, specific questions or problems that make up a test - A psychological (educational) test: set of items that are designed to measure characteristics of human beings that pertain to behaviour o Overt behaviours are observable activity Ex. How often someone engages in that behaviour o Covert behaviours cannot be directly observed Ex. Thoughts and feelings - Scales relate raw scores on test items to some defined theoretical or empirical distribution - Test scores may also be related to the state or the specific condition or status, of an individual Types of Tests - Individual tests are given to one person at a time only by test administrators o Ex. Psychotherapists see only one person at a time - Group tests o Ex. Instructor gives everyone in the class a test at the same time - Ability tests o Achievement refers to previous learning o Aptitude is the potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill o Intelligence refers to a persons general potential to solve problems (smart) Human ability: achievement, aptitude and intelligence - Personality tests are related to the overt and covert disposition of the individual, they measure typical behaviour o Structured personality tests self-report, true or false o Projective personality tests Rorschach test (inkblot stimulus) - Psychological testing refers to all the possible uses of psychologicaleducational tests and are used to evaluate individual differences or variations among individuals Historical Perspective Early Antecedents www.notesolution.com
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