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Psychology (9,695)
PSYC62H3 (313)
Chapter 1

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Suzanne Erb

Chapter 1: Psychopharmacology in perspective Psychopharmacology: discipline that attempts to systematically study the effects of drugs on behavior, cognitive functioning & emotion -combo of psychology & pharmacology -variables affecting behavior and the study of the effects of drugs on biological systems Psychoactive/Psychtropic drugs: drugs that alter behavior, cognitive functioning or emotions Psyche- originally referred soul, but now it’s used to refer to mind Pharmakos- originally referred to scapegoat; a person who was scarified for whatever sickness another had -chemicals that induce psychological effects by altering the normal biochemical reactions that take place in the nervous system Important factors of the drug’s: -chemical structure, amount taken, how long it has been since taken & how frequently it’s taken Three ingredients in the drug experience: 1. Set: psychological makeup & the expectations of the individual taking the drug 2. Setting: social & physical environment in which the drug is taken 3. Individual’s unique biochemical makeup -physical setting, person’s body chemistry, attitudes, emotional state & previous drug experiences all interact with a drug’s actions to alter person’s level of awareness -drugs are chemicals that alter the normal biological functions of the body, shouldn’t be seen as bad or good BUT must consider how much, what it’s taken for & in what context it’s taken i.e. heroin =effective drug for cancer patients & coke = effective anesthetic for surgery A historical Overview of psychopharmacology -Viking warriors injected mushroom Amanita muscaria, which is capable of inducing gaiety, exuberance & berserk behavior -Natives used peyote cactus = hallucinogen mescaline in religious ceremonies -Aztec ceremonial eating of teonanacatl which contained hallucinogenic substances psilocybin & psilocin -cannabis = used for medical value -opium poppies (morphine & codeine) used by ancient Sumerians -substances that effectively suppress manic symptoms found in rauwolfia -South Americans chewed on coca leaf to alleviate fatigue, elevate mood & reduce hunger= small amounts coke -tea pleasurable stimulant ~600AD in China -witches used various herbs i.e mandrake, henbane & belladonna containing scopolamine, hyoscyamine, & atropine to induce hallucination of flying -toads sweat glands = hallucinogenic drug bufotenine -except for caffefine, most common psychoactive substance used around the world today = alcohol -earliest records of purposeful alcohol production = Egyptians 5500 ya or wine by Iran 2000 years before them -nonhumans observed to seek out substances with mood-altering properties i.e. elephants, chimps, baboons & horses prefer water with small alcohol vs. pure water -birds prefer fermented berries over unfermented berries -goats nibble coffee berries -worms & fruit flies possess many proteins that are the site of action of many drugs of abuse Siegel- intoxication is universal “Fourth drive” as natural as the innate drives of hunger, thirst & sex Predecessors to Modern Pharmacotherapies -1800s psychoactive drugs isolated/distilled from plants or developed from nonplant sources -morphine isolated from opium = effective treatment for periodic insanity -coke extracted from coca leaf = potential treatment for depression -Bromine & Chloral used as sedatives & sleep-induc
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