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Psychology (9,578)
PSYC85H3 (138)
Chapter 11

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michelle Hilscher

Chapter 11 Research MethodsPhilosophy of ScienceLogical PositivismDef tried to formulate general principles for gathering knowledge taking principles from things such as physics and chemistryRudolph Carnapemphasized that knowledge is embodied in language So any science at the very base is a set of statements referring to observationsVerification principle meaning of a statement is its method of verification oGive a description of the conditions under which the sentence will form a true proposition Unless we can give a procedure for our statements they are meaninglessProtocol sentences how to describe observations when doing experiments referring to publicly observable eventsoCant do it Its all meaninglessoOnce youve made a protocol sentence it becomes the meaning of the statement There is no surplusArgued that psychology involved dispositional concepts descriptions of lawful relationships between independent and dependent variables oIf X stimulus then Y behaviouroCapable of being falsified Falsifiability important part of science should observations become outdated they should be replaced with a more likely answerOperationismDef Investigator must specify how a concept is to be measuredOperational definitions specifications For any psych concept a researcher should be able to give an operational definition This means that they are referring to publicly observable eventsWhere Did Psychologists StandLogical positivism and operationism were welcomed by behaviourist psychologists especially neobehaviouristsSkinner
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