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Psyc85h3- Chapter 9: Behaviourism Introduction:  Behaviorism is one of the most dominant approaches to psychology.- in the states  Behaviorists: john b. Watson and b.f. skinner both argued that behaviour should be explained without recourse to either introspection of physiology  But Ivan Pavlov and Karl Lashley believed that physiology and psychology we complementary  Although behaviorists differed from one another in many ways, what they all had in common is just that their name suggests; they regarded behavior as the only proper subject for psychology and rejected subjective experience  Animal behavior is something that the psychologist can only observe and comparative psychology implicitly promoted the objective observation of behaviour Ivan Pavlov:  Was awarded a nobel prize in 1904 for his work on the physiology of the digestive system. Became famous for his so called conditioned reflexes  Like thorndike, conducted research on animals  The doctrine of conditioned reflexes was one of the foundations of materialism in biology  Materialism is the doctrine that physical events constitute the only reality  Pavlov was never one to fully believe in the simple minded materialism Conditioned reflexes:  Pavlov thought of himself as a physiologist not a psychologist  Mental life should be understood entirely in physiological terms and that the reflex was the appropriate unit of explanation  Pavlov made distinctions b/w unconditioned reflexes and conditioned reflexes  A reflex is unconditioned if the same response always occurs in the presence f the same stimulus. Food is an unconditioned stimulus and salivation is an unconditioned response to the food. Thus conditioned means that the connection is unconditional.  The reflex of defense is the animals spontaneous reaction to anything that threatens it; the reflex of freedom occurs when the animal is confined and attempts to escape; the reflex of purpose is observed when the animal attempts to attain something of value to it.  Conditioned reflexes are conditional in the sense that they occur only under certain conditions.  3 important facts about conditioning o A conditioned response is usually smaller in magnitude than an unconditioned one o If a conditioned reflex have been formed and then the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented by itself, in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus, then the conditioned response will eventually cease.- this is called extinction o Suppose that a conditioned response have been extinguished and the animal has been returned to its home cage. If the animal is then brought back to the experimental situation after rest, the previously extinguished conditioned response may return.- this is called spontaneous recovery  Pavlov’s experiments rested in the way that his findings could apparently be generalized from the laboratory to situations outside the laboratory.  Unconditioned reflexes are not by themselves sufficient to ensure the survival of the organism  There are signals that guide the animal to an unconditioned stimulus, as long as they are reliable the animal continues to respond to them.  However the environment is always changing and that is why adaptability is crucial to the survival of the animal.  Spontaneous recovery provides the organism with the opportunity to check out a signal that may have become reliable again  Pavlov uses the analogy of a central telephone switchboard to explain the conditioning process Speech  Higher order conditioning occurs when a second conditioned stimulus is paired with a conditioned stimulus that has already been established  The primary signaling system consists largely of sensory stimuli, such as the tone  Secondary signaling system plays a crucial role, because it consists largely of words, words as signals Temperaments and Psychopathology  Pavlov believed that the fundamental cortical processes were excitation and inhibition  Excitatory group, which is easily conditioned  Inhibitory group, which is difficult to condition  Pavlov drew is work from Hippocrates and his work on the four temperaments; choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic and melancholic  Choleric being extremely excitatory and melancholic to the extremely with sanguine and phlegmatic in between.  The excitatory and inhibitory imbalance of the extreme temperaments is associated with pathology, in contrast to the relative equilibrium of the middle temperaments.  Choleric is passionate and easily and quickly irritated  Melancholic believes in nothing, hopes for nothing, in everything he sees only the dark side  The sanguine and phlegmatic types stand in the golden middle, well equilibrated and therefore healthy and stable. Vivisection and Anti Vivisection  Vivisection is for the dissection of animals and anti-vivisection is against the dissection of animals  Pavlov thought that these sacrifices were needed to be made because there was no other way to figure out how the nervous system worked. Vladimir M. Bekhterev  Attempted to explain all behaviour from the individual to the social in terms of the reflex concept  Regarded the individual as a system of energy transformation and exchange, in much the same way as did Freud.  Although is method was more objective than Freud’s.  Bekhterev believed that the basic laws of physical science could be applied to explain behaviour at all levels, from the individual to the social  Although bekhterev was no famous for his ambitious work he is considered to be the first responsible for the interest in conditioning shown in the early 20 century psychologists  Developed a technique called associated motor reflex in both dogs and humans, the technique involved applying electrical shock to for ex. A person’s finger and resting it on a metal surface, the response was withdrawal of the finger upon being shocked. This response could come to be elicited by a signal that preceded the shock and it was called association reflex .  His wrok was used in j.b watson’s work Box 9.1:  Animal welfare is consistent with the judeo-christian tradition which was always maintained that although people are of greater value than animals people have a responsibility to promote the welfare of animals.  However it is ethical to use animals in research if it will help people in the long run  Animal rights activists adopted a different view point, in which human lives are not superior to animal lives J.B. Watson  Ideas of Jacques loeb was very influential to Watson work  For loeb, functional relations in psychology describe the dependence of behaviour on particular stimulus conditions o Tropisms:
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