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Chapter 5

RLG notes on chapter 5 (islam) .docx

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Department
Religion
Course
RLGA02H3
Professor
Henry Shiu
Semester
Winter

Description
RLG notes on pages 268 to 283 Islam = submission in Arabic and signifies the commitment of adherents to live in total submission to God o According to quran = Islam= god’s eternal way for the universe o Humans can reject or accept faith but they will be judged on day of judgment o One can be born into being muslim or  becoming on in presence of Shahadah or profession of faith Origins o Mecca (Where Moe was born)> dominated by 1 tribe (Quraysh) but open to broad range of cultural and religious influences o ^majority of society was polytheistic> many of images of gods/goddesses were kept in ancient structure called KABA The life of Muhammad (570 BCE-632 BCE) o Born into Quraysh tribe o Worked as merchant for widow KHADIJAH and married her in his mid twenties o He was called Al-Amin (honest or trustworthy) o During Ramadan> spent days in a cave on mount Hira (short distance from Mecca) o One night, an angel called GABRIEL appeared and asked him to read, he couldn’t and was afraid and went to his home and asked people to cover him o Angel kept returning, telling him that he is the messenger of god, KHADIJAH took him to her cousin (a Christian) and he was declared a prophet sent by God. o For 12 years, he preached and meccans feared for the new faith but for their social customs and for religious economic status of the Kaba o He instructed for them to give alms, care for orphaned, etc. and warned of doom o KHADIJAH was first to accept, his cousin in law Ali bin Abi Talib, his slave Zaayd bin Harithah and faithful companion ABU BAKR o Experienced MI’RAJ or night journey when wife and uncle ABU TALIB died (traveling from mecca to Jerusalem to Mecca in one night to go to heaven) The First Muslim Community o The migration (HIJRAH) to Yathrib (later known as ‘the city of the prophet’ or Medina (‘The city’) marked Islamic history o Moe established 1 Islamic commonwealth -> theocratic state, headed by prophet whose rule was believed to follow the dicates of a divine structure 1 o Mecca had Jewish community as well as 2 feuding arab tribes the AWS and the KHAZRAJ o Moe said whole community should be in a singular commonwealth The Quran and the Hebrew Bible o Qurans worldview/narratives similar to prophetic view of history in Hebrew bible o Prophet wants the Jews of Medina to be natural allies, and adopted a number of Jewish practices like > the fast of the day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)< Medinan Jews rejected Moe’s claim to be prophet> and Qurans claim to be a sacred book o ^shown in Quran’s testament of Jews o after 2 years of Moe’s arrival> fast of ramandan took place over the fast of Yom Kippur and the QIBLAH (Direction of prayer) changed from Jerusalem to the Kaba in Mecca o new people were added to the diverse society (Muhajirun) or ‘immigrants’ The Conversion of Mecca o when Muslims fled Mecca to Medina they didn’t’ take anything with them > o in 624> Meccans sent an army of 1000 men to Medina, they were met by 300 man detachment of Muslims o Muslims defeated them > BATTLE OF BADR o Meccans later beat them by Mount Uhud o ^the jews of Medina were banned from the cite unless they formed alliance with the Meccans against the Muslims o ^Muslims continued to rain caravans of the Quraysh > received word that the Meccans were planning to attach Medina o Battle of the Trench > marked tipping point between Muslims and Meccans > 628= truce o 2 years later> the Quraysh failed the truce> MOE set out for Mecca. When Muslims arrived the Meccans surrendered Moe was always known as RASUL ALLAH (The messenger of God) o he laid the foundations of a community (UMMAH) o the SUNNI (those who follow sunnah traditions) > he had not designated a successor or specified how one should be chosen o SHIA> believed he appointed son in law ali to succeed him o A KHALIFAH> one who represents or acts on behalf of another o After M’s death> ABU BAKR> became the KHALIFAT RASUL ALLAH (the successor or representative of the Messenger of God) o CALIPH= RELIGIOUS RULER o At the same time he was the commander of the Muslims in times of peace/war 2 Crystallization Prophets and Messengers o Islamic point of view= HUMAN HISTORY = PROPHETIC HISTORY o From time of Adam to time of MO> god sent 124 000 prophets into the world to warn them of disobedience o Quran mentions few names : JOHN THE BAPTIST, ABRAHAH, MOSES, DAVID, SOLOAN, Jesus, ELIJAH, JONAH o PROPHET = one who conveys message from god to specific people at specific time o RASUL OR MESSENGER = also a prophet sent by god to a specific community but the message her delivers is a universally binding sacred law (SHARI’AH) o Torah given to Moses on Mount Sinai was example of latter o Among messenger prophets >NOAH, ABRAHAM, MOSES, Jesus, AND MO are called ULU AL-‘AZM (prophets of power or firm resolve) The Quran o Quran was sent down= over a period of 23 years o It is nearly as long as the New Testament o The Quran tries to create an UMMAH The Status of the Qur’an o There is theological parraell with Christian understandings of Jesus. For Christians= Christ is the word of God made flesh, while for Muslims the Qur’an is the Word of God made into a book Compiling the Quran o Process of producing an official text of the Qur’an was completed under the 3 caliph, ‘UTHMAN IBN ‘AFFAN, within 20 years of the prophet’s death Qur’anic Commentary o Any such interpretation is based on one of three authoritive sources: THE QURAN, PROPHETIC HADITH (TRADITON), AND THE OPINIONS OF THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS AND THEIR SUCCESSORS o Like Quran and Hadith> the earliest commentaries were transmitted orally, but by 10 century Quranic interpretation developed into a science with several fields of study 3 The Qur’an’s Concept of God o Islamic theology> God’s essence is unknowable, inconceivable, and above all categories of time, space, form, and number, o God is known through Beautiful names Faith and Action o Righteousness= Muslims should give away their wealth o All men and women are equal o Iman= faith, trust. o Kufr = rejection of faith o Islam vs. Faith = Islam= religious, social, and legal institution whose members make up UMMAH .. FAITH= inner conviction whose sincerity God alone can judge, a commitment to a way of life in the worship of God and in moral relation with other people o Ihsan (doing good or creating beauty) > both Islam and Iman Relgious Sciences o Religious sciences> part of a comprehensive culture package including = theology, philosophy, literature and science o For muslims inner submission to the will of God, is God’s way for all of humankind o Islam is the way of life that is to be realized by living within the framework of divine law, the Shari’ah, that is a way of life based on moral imperatives The Sources of Islamic Law The Qur’an o ^Concerned with relationships among individuals in society and individuals with God o 1 relationship husband and wife, 2 the relationship
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