Textbook Notes (368,875)
Canada (162,227)
Religion (74)
RLGA02H3 (39)
Chapter 5

RLG notes on chapter 5 (islam) .docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Henry Shiu

RLG notes on pages 268 to 283 Islam = submission in Arabic and signifies the commitment of adherents to live in total submission to God o According to quran = Islam= god’s eternal way for the universe o Humans can reject or accept faith but they will be judged on day of judgment o One can be born into being muslim or  becoming on in presence of Shahadah or profession of faith Origins o Mecca (Where Moe was born)> dominated by 1 tribe (Quraysh) but open to broad range of cultural and religious influences o ^majority of society was polytheistic> many of images of gods/goddesses were kept in ancient structure called KABA The life of Muhammad (570 BCE-632 BCE) o Born into Quraysh tribe o Worked as merchant for widow KHADIJAH and married her in his mid twenties o He was called Al-Amin (honest or trustworthy) o During Ramadan> spent days in a cave on mount Hira (short distance from Mecca) o One night, an angel called GABRIEL appeared and asked him to read, he couldn’t and was afraid and went to his home and asked people to cover him o Angel kept returning, telling him that he is the messenger of god, KHADIJAH took him to her cousin (a Christian) and he was declared a prophet sent by God. o For 12 years, he preached and meccans feared for the new faith but for their social customs and for religious economic status of the Kaba o He instructed for them to give alms, care for orphaned, etc. and warned of doom o KHADIJAH was first to accept, his cousin in law Ali bin Abi Talib, his slave Zaayd bin Harithah and faithful companion ABU BAKR o Experienced MI’RAJ or night journey when wife and uncle ABU TALIB died (traveling from mecca to Jerusalem to Mecca in one night to go to heaven) The First Muslim Community o The migration (HIJRAH) to Yathrib (later known as ‘the city of the prophet’ or Medina (‘The city’) marked Islamic history o Moe established 1 Islamic commonwealth -> theocratic state, headed by prophet whose rule was believed to follow the dicates of a divine structure 1 o Mecca had Jewish community as well as 2 feuding arab tribes the AWS and the KHAZRAJ o Moe said whole community should be in a singular commonwealth The Quran and the Hebrew Bible o Qurans worldview/narratives similar to prophetic view of history in Hebrew bible o Prophet wants the Jews of Medina to be natural allies, and adopted a number of Jewish practices like > the fast of the day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)< Medinan Jews rejected Moe’s claim to be prophet> and Qurans claim to be a sacred book o ^shown in Quran’s testament of Jews o after 2 years of Moe’s arrival> fast of ramandan took place over the fast of Yom Kippur and the QIBLAH (Direction of prayer) changed from Jerusalem to the Kaba in Mecca o new people were added to the diverse society (Muhajirun) or ‘immigrants’ The Conversion of Mecca o when Muslims fled Mecca to Medina they didn’t’ take anything with them > o in 624> Meccans sent an army of 1000 men to Medina, they were met by 300 man detachment of Muslims o Muslims defeated them > BATTLE OF BADR o Meccans later beat them by Mount Uhud o ^the jews of Medina were banned from the cite unless they formed alliance with the Meccans against the Muslims o ^Muslims continued to rain caravans of the Quraysh > received word that the Meccans were planning to attach Medina o Battle of the Trench > marked tipping point between Muslims and Meccans > 628= truce o 2 years later> the Quraysh failed the truce> MOE set out for Mecca. When Muslims arrived the Meccans surrendered Moe was always known as RASUL ALLAH (The messenger of God) o he laid the foundations of a community (UMMAH) o the SUNNI (those who follow sunnah traditions) > he had not designated a successor or specified how one should be chosen o SHIA> believed he appointed son in law ali to succeed him o A KHALIFAH> one who represents or acts on behalf of another o After M’s death> ABU BAKR> became the KHALIFAT RASUL ALLAH (the successor or representative of the Messenger of God) o CALIPH= RELIGIOUS RULER o At the same time he was the commander of the Muslims in times of peace/war 2 Crystallization Prophets and Messengers o Islamic point of view= HUMAN HISTORY = PROPHETIC HISTORY o From time of Adam to time of MO> god sent 124 000 prophets into the world to warn them of disobedience o Quran mentions few names : JOHN THE BAPTIST, ABRAHAH, MOSES, DAVID, SOLOAN, Jesus, ELIJAH, JONAH o PROPHET = one who conveys message from god to specific people at specific time o RASUL OR MESSENGER = also a prophet sent by god to a specific community but the message her delivers is a universally binding sacred law (SHARI’AH) o Torah given to Moses on Mount Sinai was example of latter o Among messenger prophets >NOAH, ABRAHAM, MOSES, Jesus, AND MO are called ULU AL-‘AZM (prophets of power or firm resolve) The Quran o Quran was sent down= over a period of 23 years o It is nearly as long as the New Testament o The Quran tries to create an UMMAH The Status of the Qur’an o There is theological parraell with Christian understandings of Jesus. For Christians= Christ is the word of God made flesh, while for Muslims the Qur’an is the Word of God made into a book Compiling the Quran o Process of producing an official text of the Qur’an was completed under the 3 caliph, ‘UTHMAN IBN ‘AFFAN, within 20 years of the prophet’s death Qur’anic Commentary o Any such interpretation is based on one of three authoritive sources: THE QURAN, PROPHETIC HADITH (TRADITON), AND THE OPINIONS OF THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS AND THEIR SUCCESSORS o Like Quran and Hadith> the earliest commentaries were transmitted orally, but by 10 century Quranic interpretation developed into a science with several fields of study 3 The Qur’an’s Concept of God o Islamic theology> God’s essence is unknowable, inconceivable, and above all categories of time, space, form, and number, o God is known through Beautiful names Faith and Action o Righteousness= Muslims should give away their wealth o All men and women are equal o Iman= faith, trust. o Kufr = rejection of faith o Islam vs. Faith = Islam= religious, social, and legal institution whose members make up UMMAH .. FAITH= inner conviction whose sincerity God alone can judge, a commitment to a way of life in the worship of God and in moral relation with other people o Ihsan (doing good or creating beauty) > both Islam and Iman Relgious Sciences o Religious sciences> part of a comprehensive culture package including = theology, philosophy, literature and science o For muslims inner submission to the will of God, is God’s way for all of humankind o Islam is the way of life that is to be realized by living within the framework of divine law, the Shari’ah, that is a way of life based on moral imperatives The Sources of Islamic Law The Qur’an o ^Concerned with relationships among individuals in society and individuals with God o 1 relationship husband and wife, 2 the relationship
More Less

Related notes for RLGA02H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.