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SOCA01H3 (480)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Notes

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCA01H3
Professor
Sheldon Ungar
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 5: (pgs. 111-125) Social Interaction 1) Feminist Theory, Emotions, and the Building Blocks of Social Interaction (pgs 111- 116)  Women laugh more than men in conversations  Men are more likely to engage in long monologues and interrupt others  Men are less likely to ask for help and directions  due to reduction in their authority o This can cause male-female conflicts  Social interaction: Involves people communicating face to face or via computer and acting and reacting in relation to other people. It is structured around norms, roles, and status. o Feminist sociologists see gender often structures interaction patterns  Status: Refers to a recognized social position an individual can occupy. o Example: Status increases for men (get more laughs) and decreases for women (laugh more)  Roles: Are sets of expected behaviours. o Example: Class clown  Norms: Are generally accepted ways of doing things. o Example: Punishing the class clown  Role Conflicts: Different role demands are placed upon one person holding two or more statuses. o Example: Women  Wife, Mother, and Flight Attendant  Role Strain: One person upholds one status with incompatible roles demands. o Example: Stewardess in 1960s and 1970s  Emotion Management  Believed that we cannot control our body’s patterned responses (involuntary responses are our emotions)  Feminists argued that emotions don’t just happen, we manage them o Increases our survival o Follow cultural “scripts”  Arlie Russell Hochschild o Emotion management: Involves people obeying “feeling rules” and responding appropriately to the situations in which they find themselves. External Physiological Modified stimulus response and Cultural Script emotional intital emotion response Chapter 5: (pgs. 111-125) Social Interaction  Emotion Labour  Emotion labour: Is emotion management that many people do as part of their job and for which they are paid.  In US, ½ of job women do an⁄ of jobs men do involve emotional labour  Women typically take these jobs on since they usually undertake caring and nurturing roles  Increase in demand for emotional labour = increase in pay  Emotions in Historical Perspective  Increase of service sector = increase emotional labour = decrease ability to experience emotions spontaneously and authentically o Emotions aren’t natural but controlled  Feeling rules take different forms under different social conditions  Example 1: Grief o Crude death rate determines level of grief o 1600s: Lots of infant deaths = less emotional investment towards children. Less grieving and shorter mourning periods o Now: More grieving and longer mourning periods. o As medicine and health sector improved, grief increased, emotional investment increased, and mourning periods increased  Example 2: Anger th o 19 Century North America and Europe: Industrialization = increased importance of harmonious household o For more harmonious households, there is an increase in anger control o Goal of labour relations = avoiding anger due to competitive markets o Teaching children to control anger as a result for future generations  Example 3: Disgust o Middle Ages: Their manners are disgusting by modern standards (ie. Belching and spitting)  Feeling rules have changed o Manners changed with the emergence of modern public state especially after 1700s  Raised armies, collected taxes, imposed languages and required loyalty = more self-control o Changes in standard conduct = Introduction of fork, nightdress, handkerchief, spittoon, chamber pot o Good manners = power o Rules between good manners vs. improper behaviour = distribution of power in family by age and gender  Emotion is not universal nor constant, due to underlying sociological histories of statues, roles, and norms. Chapter 5: (pgs. 111-125) Social Interaction  Believed that interactions are outcomes of emotional status (involuntarily evoked = uncontrollable action)  But emotions are more controlled than we believe due to sociological principles from history  Norms, roles, and statuses require a “social cement” to maintain a durable social structure Summary:  Social interaction is norm-based, communication between people occupying statues and playing roles.  Emotions are an important component of social interaction. Social position shapes the expression of emotions.  Forms of emotional management and emotional labour vary across social contexts and historically. Chapter 5: (pgs. 111-125) Social Interaction 2) Conflict Theories of Social Interaction (pgs 116 – 119)  Competing for Attention  One-sided conversations = neglected feeling increases o If persists, may end interaction altogether to avoid feeling  Maintaining interaction requires both parties’ needs to be met  Turn-talking is a basic norm that governs conversations  Charles Derber: Found that North Americans usually try to turn conversations onto themselves subtly  Competing for attention  Conflict Theory: Social interaction involves competition over valued resources (attention, approval, prestige, information, money, etc.) o Seeking to gain the most (socially, emotionally, and economically) while paying the least  Variants of the Conflict Theory of Interaction  Exchange Theory: Holds that social interaction involves trade in valued resources o Social relationships involve a literal give and take o Exchange rewards (attention, etc.) or punishments o Payoffs  Enduring relationships o No payoffs  Ending relationships o Includes punishments for both  Rational Choice Theory: Focuses on the way interacting people weigh the benefits and costs of interaction. According to rational choice theory, interacting people always try to maximize benefits and minimize costs. o Based on payoffs alone o Balance payoffs = social order o Unequal payoffs = trouble in social order  Variants of the Conflict Theory of Interaction  Interacti
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