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SOCA02H3 (310)
Chapter 6

Sociology chapter 6.docx

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Maggie Cummings

Sociology chapter 6 1) norms of solidarity demand conformity; lovers, spouses, teammates solidarity relationships are emotionally important to us, attention to norms of solidarity than to the morality of our action deeply loyal to one another 2) structures of authority tend to render people obedient, fear ridicule, ostracism and punishment milgram study on punishment and learning 3) bureaucracies are higly effective structure of authority weber defined bureaucracy large, impersonal organization comprising many clearly defined position arranged in a hierarchy. maximize gains and minimize losses 4 kinds of social collectivities shape our actions: networks, groups, bureaucratic organization and whole societies on average, it would take no more than 6 acquantances to get the letter to the stranger no more than three links separate us from you social network- bounded set of individuals linked by the exchange of material or emotional resources formal (defined in writing) or informal (defined in only in practice) value of network analysis -individuals, groups, organization and even countries intimate relationships between lovers to diplomatic relations among nations society is marked by impersonal relationships held together largely by self interest community is marked by intimate and emotionally intense social ties dyad, social relationship between two nodes or social units (e.g people, firms, organization, countries) (both partners are intensely absorbed in the relationship) triad, is a social relationship among three nodes or social units (third party exploit the rivalry between two partners) leadership Laissez-faire leadership- (no direction and lets the subordinates to work things largely on their own) from a French expression “let them do”, this works best with members who are highly expirenced, trained, motivated and educated Authoritarian leadership-demand strict compliance from subordinates, war or emergency room of the hospital-works best in. Democratic leadership- guidance, all group members in the decision making process Taking the best ideas from the group and moulding them into a strategy with which all can identify. Outside crisis situations, democratic leadership is usually the most effective leadership style Overcoming bureaucratic inefficiency -large bureaucratic organization sometimes find themselves unable to compete against smaller, have flatter and more democratic organizational structures multiple lines of communication produce more satisfied workers, happier clients and bigger profits Organizational environment- comprises a host of economic, political and cultural factors that lie outside an organization and affect the way it works Formation of flatter, network like bureaucracies 1970’s American business bureaucracies more hierarchical than their Japanese counterparts were worker dissatisfaction was highg and labour productivity was low in the US, decision making more decentralized, worker moral and productivity were high ­ japaneses workers were in position ofAmerican workers in unions declined ­ international competition encouraged bureaucratic efficiency in Japan , had a bigger incentive to develop more efficient organizational structures ­ the availability of external suppliers alled Japanese firms to remain lean no body else was making them, IBM develop a large, hierarchical bureaucracy the united states copied Japanese method in workers and production strengthen societies- collectivities of interacting people who share a culture and a territory same private decision at almost precisely the same historical moment, certain identifiable social conditions prompt them to reach the same conclusion identifiable social conditions increase the chane that we will choose one course of action over another identified six stages of human evolution successive stage people are less at the mercy of nature and transform it more radically foraging societies: wild plants and hunting wild animals, depended on nature passibely, slightly meet their needs, basket, bows and arrows, spears and digging sticks ­ aquatic foragers- wester coast of north amercia: fishing and hunting marine mamals ­ equestrian foragers- great plains aboriginal people of northAmerica, hunted large mammals from horseback ­ pedestrian foragers engaged in diversified hunting and gathering on foot disease, starvation, pestilence or some other force of nature traditional way of life until 1960’s kung did not fully join
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