Textbook Notes (368,317)
Canada (161,798)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA02H3 (310)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Notes

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

CHAPTER 13Work and the EconomyThe Promise and History of Work Salvation or Curse y Sociologist Shoshana Zuboff asked office workers to draw pictures capturing their job experience before and after computerization the pictures were strikingly similar smiles changed to frowns mobility became immobility sociability was transformed into isolation freedom turned to regimentationy Bill Gates argues that computers reduce our work hours they make goods and services cheaper by removing may distribution costs of capitalism computers also allow us to enjoy our leisure time more y According to Wired a magazine computers liberate us they allow us to become more mobile and more creative Three Revolutions y The economy is the institution that organizes the production distribution and exchange of goods and services analysts divide the economy into three sectorsThe primary sector includes farming fishing logging and miningThe secondary sector raw materials are turned into finished goods manufacturing takes placeThe tertiary sector services are bought and soldy Three truly revolutionary events have taken place in the history of human labour in each revolution a different sector of the economy rose to dominance first came the Agricultural Revolution then the Industrial Revolution then the revolution in servicesThe Development of Agriculture y Nearly all humans lived in nomadic tribes then people began to herd cattle and grow plants by using simple hand tools about 5000 years ago farmers invented the plow and by attaching them to large animals productivity the amount produced for every hour worked soared y In 1900 more than 40 of the Canadian paid workforce was employed in agriculture with a smaller percentage involved in resource extraction such as cutting timber mining or fishing these commodities are in the lexicon of Canadian social science staplesThe harvesting and extracting of these staples propelled early economic development in Canada The Development of Modern Industry y International exploration trade and commerce stimulated the growth of markets form the th15 century ony Markets are social relations that regulate the exchange of goods and services in a market prices are established by supply and demandy About 225 years ago the steam engine railroads and other technological innovations greatly increased the ability of producers to supply markets this was the era of the Industrial Revolution y Although Canada began as a staples economy a stronger manufacturing sector gradually developed especially in southern Ontario and Quebec The Development of the Service Sector y Service jobs were rare in preagricultural societies and few in agricultural societies because nearly everyone had to do physical work for human societies to survive as productivity increased however service sector jobs proliferated only at the beginning of ththe 19 centuryy The computer automated many manufacturing and office procedures it created jobs in the service sector as quickly as it eliminated them in manufacturing Thus the computer is to the service sector as the steam engine was to manufacturing and the plow was to agriculture The Social Organization of Work y The Agricultural Industrial and Service Revolutions altered the way work was socially organized y The division of labour increasedwork tasks became more specialized with each successive revolution In preagrarian societies there were four main jobs hunting wild animals gathering edible wild plants raising children and tending to the tribes spiritual needs postindustrial societies boasts thousands of different kinds of jobsy Increasing the division of labour involves creating new skills some new jobs require long periods of study for some tasks require no skill y Work relations became more hierarchical increasingly work hierarchies are organized bureaucratically Good Versus Bad Jobs y What is the difference between a good job and a bad joby John Lie once had a job as a factory worker in Honolulu as his anecdote illustrates bad jobs dont pay much and require the performance of routine tasks under close supervision working conditions are unpleasant sometimes dangerous bad jobs require little formal education good jobs often require higher education pay well and are not closely supervised and they encourage workers to be creative in pleasant surroundingsy Good jobs offer secure employment opportunities for promotion and other significant benefits
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