Chapter 3 Study Guide

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6 Jan 2011
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Chapter 3 Baroque music
-vocal recitative flexible, speech-like rhythms
-toccata and prelude improvisatory solo instrumental piece
-dance regular rhythm
-bar line became common in Baroque
indicate recurring pattern of strong and weak beats
-active bass lines propulsive harmonic motion
Homophonic
-firm bass, florid treble
-held together by unobtrusive harmonies
-contrast between bass and treble
-emphasize two essential lines (treble and bass) of the texture
-subordinate inner parts
Thorough bass or basso continuo (accompaniment)
-composer wrote only melody and bass, leaving it to performers to fill in the appropriate chords
or inner parts
-bass and chords were played on continuo instrument
-harpsichord, organ, lute, theorbo were used at first
-viola da gamba, cello, bassoon to sustain notes were used later
Figured bass
-added figures (flat or sharp) above or below the bass note to indicate the precise pitches required
Concertato
-combined voices with instruments
-assign different roles to each instrument and voice
Chromaticism
-express intense emotion
-suggest harmonic exploration
-create distinctive subjects for treatment in imitative counterpoint
Tonality
-standard cadential progression
-bass movement by a fourth or fifth
-conventional bass patterns
-use of suspension and other dissonances to create forward motion
Opera
-drama sung to continuous music
-staged with scenery, costumes and action
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-composed of libretto
Monody
-ancient style of solo singing
-emotional message of text can be expressed
Recitative
-imitate speech
Orfeo
-recitative achieves more continuity and longer line
-intensely expressive at dramatic moments
-librettist is Alessandro Striggio
Ritornello
-recurring instrumental sections
Orfeo’s strophic canzonet
-dance song
-hemiola rhythm, harmonization with root position chords
Orfeo’s lament
-each phrase builds on the preceding one
-intensifies through pitch and rhythm
-dissonances against sustained chords
-rests, syncopation, word repetition
Aria
-melodious and mainly strophic
Coronation of Poppea
-historical opera on the Roman emperor Nero’s illicit affair with ambitious Poppea
-expressive recitative inflected with dissonance
-chromaticism as Pop-ea pleads with Nero not to leave her bed chamber
Arioso
-transition between recitative and aria style
Chorale prelude
-entire melody is presented just once
-single variation on a chorale
Harpsichord Music
-de la Guerre and Couperin were composers of the genre
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