Women Studies Chapter 1

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Women's and Gender Studies
Anissa Talahite- Moodley

What were women viewed as in the 1960s and 1970s? WGSTA03H3S: Theories of - According to the Feminine Mystique by Betty Feminism Friedans: women were confined to the main jobs Fall 2012 of wife and mother - Women who wanted careers in arts or politics Week 3 readings: Chapter 1(Pp.23-50) were suspect unless they were good mothers - Women were not too bright, clothes-conscious, and overly emotional GENDER REFORM FEMINISMS: Liberal Feminism (60s) Claims made by liberal feminisms: - Gender differences are not based on biology According to Liberal Feminisms, where do gender inequalities come from? - The women and men are not that different - Gendered socialization of children - The law should not treat them differently - ♀’s responsibility of child care and house chores - Women should have same legal rights, education and work opportunities - Division of paid work into women’s job and - Parenting abilities may seem biological, but men men’s job in the society learn them when they have the responsibility of - Restricted entry into top positions for women raising the children alone, so its NOT! - Limitations on procreative choice for women - Families, teachers, picture books, school books, Politics (solutions to inequalities): and mass media still encourage boys to be - Gender-neutral child-rearing and education “masculine” and girls to be “feminine” - Giving men’s jobs to women Goals of liberal feminists: - Bringing more women into politics - Undoing gender: reversing effects of gender - Promoting gender mainstreaming discrimination - Sharing parenting and subsidizing child care - Gender mainstreaming - Fighting for legal, accessible, and affordable procreative services - Let women work outside the home and men inside Critiques of Liberal Feminism: - Promote non-sexist socialization and education of children - It puts too much emphasis on the similarities of - Promote media presentation of men and women women and men, hiding positive qualities of in non-traditional roles women (empathy and nurturance) - It puts too much attentions to paid work and careers as the most meaningful lifestyle The Persistence of Gender Inequality: - It gives too little recognition on the divisions - In her article, Cynthia Fuchs Epstein addresses among women that add more disadvantages (ex. that the global subordination of women and girls racial, ethnic, and social class status) still persists despite changes in society o Women are assigned the survival tasks: - It doesn’t pay enough attention to sexual reproduction, gathering/preparing food violence and rape o Everywhere in the world, internalized cultural schemas reinforce inequality Contributions of Liberal feminisms: - Language, children’s books, and education o “mindscapes” separate and segregate became more gender neutral women, believing that the practice is - It makes gender discrimination visible inevitable and right. Psychologists call them schemas: culturally set definitions - It countered the effects of gender discrimination that people internalize by mentoring and networking associations o Yes, women have moved up in the - It works with civil rights organizations to frame continuum toward inequality in the past affirmative action guidelines and to bring lawsuits for women and disadvantaged men 30 yrs, this is NOT just because their - More women in politics brains developed! - Workplace child care and paid parental leave o Pluralistic ignorance (when people act - Abortion legalized
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