WSTA03H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Gender Mainstreaming, Undoing Gender, Pluralistic Ignorance

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Published on 24 Sep 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Women's and Gender Studies
Course
WSTA03H3
WGSTA03H3S: Theories of
Feminism
Fall 2012
Week 3 readings: Chapter 1(Pp.23-50)
GENDER REFORM FEMINISMS: Liberal Feminism
(60s)
According to Liberal Feminisms, where do gender
inequalities come from?
- Gendered socialization of children
- ’s responsibility of child care and house chores
- Division of paid work into women’s job and
men’s job in the society
- Restricted entry into top positions for women
- Limitations on procreative choice for women
Politics (solutions to inequalities):
- Gender-neutral child-rearing and education
- Giving men’s jobs to women
- Bringing more women into politics
- Promoting gender mainstreaming
- Sharing parenting and subsidizing child care
- Fighting for legal, accessible, and affordable
procreative services
Critiques of Liberal Feminism:
- It puts too much emphasis on the similarities of
women and men, hiding positive qualities of
women (empathy and nurturance)
- It puts too much attentions to paid work and
careers as the most meaningful lifestyle
- It gives too little recognition on the divisions
among women that add more disadvantages (ex.
racial, ethnic, and social class status)
- It doesn’t pay enough attention to sexual
violence and rape
Contributions of Liberal feminisms:
- Language, children’s books, and education
became more gender neutral
- It makes gender discrimination visible
- It countered the effects of gender discrimination
by mentoring and networking associations
- It works with civil rights organizations to frame
affirmative action guidelines and to bring
lawsuits for women and disadvantaged men
- More women in politics
- Workplace child care and paid parental leave
- Abortion legalized
- Procreative rights recognized as human rights
What were women viewed as in the 1960s and 1970s?
- According to the Feminine Mystique by Betty
Friedans: women were confined to the main jobs
of wife and mother
- Women who wanted careers in arts or politics
were suspect unless they were good mothers
- Women were not too bright, clothes-conscious,
and overly emotional
Claims made by liberal feminisms:
- Gender differences are not based on biology
- The women and men are not that different
- The law should not treat them differently
- Women should have same legal rights, education
and work opportunities
- Parenting abilities may seem biological, but men
learn them when they have the responsibility of
raising the children alone, so its NOT!
- Families, teachers, picture books, school books,
and mass media still encourage boys to be
“masculine” and girls to be “feminine”
Goals of liberal feminists:
- Undoing gender: reversing effects of gender
discrimination
- Gender mainstreaming
- Let women work outside the home and men
inside
- Promote non-sexist socialization and education
of children
- Promote media presentation of men and women
in non-traditional roles
The Persistence of Gender Inequality:
- In her article, Cynthia Fuchs Epstein addresses
that the global subordination of women and girls
still persists despite changes in society
o Women are assigned the survival tasks:
reproduction, gathering/preparing food
o Everywhere in the world, internalized
cultural schemas reinforce inequality
o “mindscapes” separate and segregate
women, believing that the practice is
inevitable and right. Psychologists call
them schemas: culturally set definitions
that people internalize
o Yes, women have moved up in the
continuum toward inequality in the past
30 yrs, this is NOT just because their
brains developed!
o Pluralistic ignorance (when people act
with reference to shared collective
opinions that are empirically incorrect)
still exists.
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Document Summary

"s responsibility of child care and house chores. Division of paid work into women"s job and men"s job in the society. Restricted entry into top positions for women. Fighting for legal, accessible, and affordable procreative services. It puts too much emphasis on the similarities of women and men, hiding positive qualities of women (empathy and nurturance) It puts too much attentions to paid work and careers as the most meaningful lifestyle. It gives too little recognition on the divisions among women that add more disadvantages (ex. racial, ethnic, and social class status) It doesn"t pay enough attention to sexual violence and rape. Language, children"s books, and education became more gender neutral. It countered the effects of gender discrimination by mentoring and networking associations. It works with civil rights organizations to frame affirmative action guidelines and to bring lawsuits for women and disadvantaged men. Workplace child care and paid parental leave. According to the feminine mystique by betty.

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