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M Cummings

Cultural Anthropology Page 183-184 - A thin person is judged to be superior to a heavier person - Children described the “thinner” figure as friendly, kind, happy and polite while they described the heavier figure as lazy, lying, and cheating - Teachers perceive heavier children as having more behavioural problems than others and as being less well like by their classmates - People who overweight often face hostile work environments, and job discrimination - Workers judges unattractive by their peers – are described in more negative terms - Three year study among high school girls in Arizona o During adolescent they gain 11.5 grams of body fat and thus are more critical about their bodies o Thinness is good, fatness is bad and dieting is the way to get in shape o Most of the girls are thinking about their bodies “all of the time” or a “lot of the time” - Formed their perfect body image from television, films and magazines - The ideal women was tall, long hair, long legs, flat stomach and good clothes - Being thin was the ticket to happiness and popularity - They made moral judgements about them believing that if someone who was overweight really wanted to lose wight, they could - Not losing weight implied that the girl was unconcerned about her personal appearance or was lazy Trobianders Chapter 4 – Youth and Sexuality - Everyone knows about everyone - Girls start sleeping with boys when they are about 13 - Only sleep with boys of the same village and the same holds true for boys - When they talk about giving – they are talking about caring and generosity - Giving expresses not only about caring but also intention - Comminucates desires and plans but may also attempt to control others by establishing debt - Each act of giving was once a pledge of caring and an act of obligating another person - To maintain ones autonomy , a villager keeps his or her htoughts about other private but in the form and style of ones giving are messages about the givers intention - If her brother gave her yams that were too soft and small, that means he did not really want her to have them - To influence or even to try to control another person is difficult, yet such efforts are a major preoccupation - Adolescents learn to deal with the wills and plans of others through their sexuality - Intention is written in their bodies, in their walk and in their eyes o Want to “make somebody want you” Adolescent Sexuality - By the time they are seven or eight, they play erotic games or imitate adult seductive attitudes - Four or five years late they begin to pursue sexual partners in earnest - A rendezvous may be arranged at the beach or in a secluded place away from the gardens and the village - They do not sleep in their parents house - The young boys live in one ho - use and young girls in another – they have freedom of briging loves to their sleeping quartiers - Watched by older villagers who evaluate their potential - Little pressure to put them to engage full time in adult productive pursuits - Only when villagers are married, have children and are fully commited to economic and political endeavours will they be considered adults - Lovers send messages back and forth to arrange evening meet places - Conversations are filled with sexual metaphors that express a person intention - Young women are just as assertive and dominant as men in their pursuit or refusal of a lover - It is important to look attractive and to act in a manner that conveys independence and fearlessness - Individual arrogance gives amessage of overt competitive behavior - A person must learn to be strong without appearing to be - A persons intentions are carried out covertly through magic spells that are explicitely define the intensity of rivalry and the power of seduction - When a young women is complimented for her beauty, the compliment must be repaid so that the favored person does not become too proud o Weteli tied a string around Boiyagwa’s arm, symbolizing her beauty and talent o Boiyangas had to give Weteli tobacco and betal nuts as payment for tying the strong - To turn an initial attracton into a sexual liason demands more jokes and glances - Young men must give betal nuts and tobacco to the women they want, expressing their ability to continue to give presents as long as the relationship lasts - In seduction, giving is not enough, finally love magic must be used to overcome strong opposition Seduction with Magic - The most common way for young people to obtain magic spells is to learn them from their older kin by giving food, tobacco and money - When they die, they might not have taught the full spell or all the magic they knew – spells are often lost in part or fully - Married women learns something very important spells froma lover who is visiting from another island o The man gives the spell because he loves her very much and wants to give her more then betal nuts or tobacco - When men travel to other islands, spells may also be bought from others - Words for beauty magic chanted onto coconut oil, which is then rubbed on the skin or into flowers and herbs that decorate armbands and hair - Certain spells are though to make a person become so beautiful that even those recognized as physically ugly appear handsome in the eyes of women or man who wants them - Special beauty magic where a pearl shell is passed over the persons face so that they face will take on the white, shiny, qualities of the shell, making the person strinkingly enticing - When they reach their mid teens, the lovers meetings take up most of the night and a new affair may last for several months or longer - Seriousness will enter these meetings – where marriage may be the next important step - To project ones oewn will over someone else necessitates exercising control of another person feelings - Must resort to the most powerful kinds of magic spells known and practised by few adults - The person will not eat or listen to the advice of others, they will do nothing but long for her or his lover - The words of the strong love spell are chanted into betel or tobacco and then must be transmitted to the person o Have to be inhaled or ingested o Have to enter a persons body so it controls his or her thoughts - Believe that the agent carrying the magic only becomes effective when the words are chanted again and again throughout the night or for several days so that the betal nut or tobacco absorbs its power from the act of speech itself - However, a suspecting women may refuse the betal nut and the love magic can be averted – relationships are full of chance - The line between influencing others while not allowing others to gain control of oneself may be carefully learned - Effective spells collapse a persons autonomy and establish control over the other persons thoughts - Sexual liasons give adolescents the time and occasion to experiment with all the possibilities and problems that adults face in creating relationships with those that are not relatives - Must learn to be careful and fearless Choosing one Lover - When a man beings to meet the same lover again and agin – rejects the advances of others – strong love magic has been used - She spends the night with him in her house and must leave before the other villager awaken and begin to congregate on their verandas - No one should see lovers entering or leaving eachothers houses - A serious part of lovemaking is to bite off eyelashes and put scratches on their backs – news such as this gossip - There are not taboos about chewing betal or smoking together, lovers must never eat food in the company of one another - Peer constraints may upset the privacy of the relationship - Jealousy is a big problem – confrontations because two girls want to sleep with the same man o Ex. Ester and Ruth got into a public dispute, hitting eachother o Brought great shame to their matrilineal kins o Told to work hard leaning to make womens wealth rather then fighting for boys - Sometimes ones freedom is to have the person one wants is curtailed by public reprimands And peer retaliation - High status and rank provide added support for exerting ones will, but even young people who are members of chiefly lineages face rejection - As people get older, their interests turn to marriage, their independence becomes more restricted - Adult interference and marriage is about adult productive concerns Looking for a Spouse - Although there is a lot of emphasis on beauty , love and magi during adolescent years .. marriage is rarely considered only as a love match - Invoves not just two people but many other villagers as well - It if the men as fathers who provide a critical link in these alliance since the marriage of a mans children has important political consequences for him - A matrilineal clan is composed of many matrilinages - Each person is born into their mothers matrilineages, tracing descent through women to named ancestors - Each person at birth is a member of his or her mothers clan, there are no clan ancestors - Matrialineages are hundreds, there are only four Trobiand clans : Malasi, Lukuba, Lukwasisiga and Lukulabuta - Each clan has its own set of identifying totems but it owns no property in comman nor does it have any specific place of origin like a matrilinage does - Clans never unite for a specific cause or an event and are not reffered to as “same blood” like a matrilineage - But could read a persons lines on their palms to determine what clan they were from - Clans are exogamous – a mate must be a member of another clan - Marriages within the same clan considered incestuous - The best marriage of any villager is to marry someone of his or her fathers clan - Dabweyowa, a member of the martilineage A and the Lukwasiga clan, married a women who belongs to matrilineage C in the Malasi clan - Dabs father is a member of matrilineage D in the Malasi clan - Dabs wifes mother and mothers brother are now related to his father almost as if they were members of the same lineage - Call each other keyawa means “like the same matrilineage” - The word yawa is a synonym for dala, the more comman term for matrilineage - Villagers who are keyawa – are obligated to do much more then give each other food o Need to give away yams and other kinds of wealth for importantn exchanges - The keyawa kin are vital to the massive transactions of women’s valuables that take place after someone dies - If a man marries a women in his fathers clan, his children also will be members of his fathers clas and the same close relationship between his fathers matilineage and his wife will continue through his children into the next generation - Each marriage with a spouse from ego’s father clan gives ego’s father a new close kin relationships with villagers who are members of different matrilineages within the same clan o With a daughter cannot direct in discussing her choice of a husband because of the taboos associated with incest - Incest taboo prohibits sexual intercourse between a woman and her father or her brother, but the taboo equally prohibits a womans father or her brother from having any discussion with her about her love affairs - The sister-brother taboo is the most serious rule about social relations that exist in the Trobriands o The infringmene tof the sister-brother sexual incest taboo is perceived to be so horrifying that in it occurrence, bot had to commit suicide - Brother plays not role in discussions and decisions about selecting a spouse - Learns about the marriage after it happens , when his mother privately tells him o On hearing the news he remains in his house or leaves the village and goes alone to the beach or into the bush for a day or two because he is shamed that his mother had to tell him about his sisters lover - The rule of incest between father and daughter is less rigid then brother and sister – far more stories - It is the mans advantage to have his daughter marry someone who is a member of his clan so that her husbands mother and mothers brother will become keyawa kin to him - A girls mother plays the central role in descisions about the daughters marriage .. she can argure that the boy is lazy and ugly - She cannot however stop her daughter from continuing to sleep with him Eating Yams Together - No traditional marriage ceremony - Instead of leaving his hamlet before sunrise, she stays with him and they wait for the brides mother to bring them cooked yams o These acts make a marriage official - If the girls mother and brother approve of the choice, she cooks yams and carries it to her - When they eat the yams together , the marriage is recognized - If they disprove, then they hurry to the hamlet and make her leave with them - Yet the girl has the final word o May marry the man of the moms choice but then run away after - Can arrange a secret meeting with him, go the beach and live for several days and then once they start to live openly with eachother the parents must accept and respect the marriage - After they eat yams together, the mans sister bring three long skirts to her new sister-in-law - Cuts them so that their below the knee, she is no longer allowed to wear short mini-skirts - Both take off their red shell necklaces, if they remain on its indicative that their still looking for lovers - Sexual freedom and independence of choice run counter to jealousy, pride and the emotions of others - The lessons in adolescence are important because even after they will draw on the power of beauty and sexuality (political endeavours) Cultural Anthropology Pages 40-65 Introduction What do we talk about when we talk about progress? - 10 thousand years ago we lived in groups of 30 to 100 people - Ate by hunting and gathering - Today no human beings anywhere in the world live exclusively by foraging, although every society in existence is descended from such people - Todays society divided into wealthy and poor nations - Why after thousands of years as living as foragers, did some people try to change their way of life - Began to domesticate plants and animals and exchange their existence for a sedentary way of life - Should we assume that human beings chose to abandon a nomadic, foraging life because they discovered better ways of living - Should we assume that the few remaining small scale socities should adopt modern farming, wage labour and urban life - Should we explain the worlds division of wealth by saying that some natons have progressed while others have not - Progress – the human history has beena steady advance from a life dependant on natures whims to a life of control and domination over natural forces – a fabrication of contemporary socities based on ethnocentric notions of technological superiority - Many anthropoligcal ideas about modes of livelihood can be put into good use outside of the academy in the area of development - What exactly, does progress mean and for whom? Question 2.1 How and why did foraging societies switch to sedentary agriculture - Combining what we have learnd about human history from the work of archeologists and historians with information provided by cultural anthropologists who have worked among foraging and tribal socities creates a clear picture of culture change - Humans were scattered in 30 to 100 people nomadic bands, who lived by gathering wild plants and hunting small and large gme - Groups that were small and mobile – didn’t need political arrrangements or formal leaders - Specialist were people that were belived to have special powers like causing illness and death - Relations among people were of egalitarian nature – no individual weather or possesions - Then began to domesticat plant crops and wild animals - Became sedentary – settlements of 200 to 2000 people - Slash and burn agriculture – burned trees and brush and then planted crops in the ashes - Certain members assumed the role of chief or elder – authority to make decisions and resolve disputes - People organized themselves into clans – 200 to 500 people that claimed to be from a comman ancestor - Settlements combined to form states of many thousands of people - Slash and burn replaced with plough and irrigation agriculture o Organized labour for constructing roads, fortifications, religious structure - Leaders emerged, settlements grew into cities and competition between groups over available resources spurred the development of standing armies - Peopld began to develop special skills and to specialize in occupational tasks – led to increase of trade - Some of these hierarchical socities began to develop into large scale, industrialized states which are now found all over the world Does the Idea of Progress Help Us Understand the Shift from Foraging to Sedentary Agriculture - Human inventions resulted in bettwe ways of doing things: human culture progressed - Begand to question the idea that the life of foreigners was harsh and difficult Evolutionary Explanations for Culture Change: Lewis Henry Morgan and Leslie White - Sedentary agriculture was a easier, less dangerous and more productive way to get food - According to this explanation they had progressed - Lewis Henry Morgan, a lawyer in Rochester New York o Postulated a theory of human development in which human socities evolved through three stages that he labelled savagery, barbarism and civilizaiton o Further divided savagery and barabarism into early and middle and late stages o The passage of socities from one stage to the next required some technological invention o Early to middle savagery – control of fire o Middle to late – invention of bow and arrow o Late savagery to late barbarism- invention of pottery, agriculture and animal domestication - Leslie white o Like morgan saw technology as a driving force of cultural evolution o Sough energy from this technology and used it to survive o Energy that was put into work, the amount of food, clothing or other goods produced by the expenditure of energy was proportional to the effieciency of the technology available o Cultural development varied with the efficiency of the tools employed o Technology that was more efficient allowed human socities to transform more energy to fulfill their needs, these socities could then produce more food and support larger porpulations o Increased effiency allowed a few people to produce food for everyone, freeing others to develop skills and promote occupational specialization – led to trade and commerce o Population growth and increased contact among groups led to the formation of states  Coordinated activities and armies to defend the groups wealth What are the Shortcomings of these Theories of Progress - His theory holds the point of view that many people hold to this day: technology is the true measure of progress, and that the more energy human socities can harness through the development of new power sources, the more social, economical and poltical problems they will solve - Spurring new doubts was the studies of foraging societies that suggested that the life of a nomadic forager was not harsh and dangerous o The “original affluent society” with minimal work and lots of leisure time - First challenge about life in foraging socities – roles of males and females o Women produced the greater share of food in these socities - Second was that foragers went hungry o They had plenty of food and didn’t have to work very hard to get it - Why did we move away from this and why do we call it progress? Life Among Foragers: The Hadza and Ju/hoansi - Foragers depicted of being poor and hungry - But found the Hadza to be rich in food and resources - Spent about two house of their day obtaining food - Women were responsible for plant food and men for hunting - Hunted with bows and arrows, had no spears or guns - They would say they were hungry when there was no meat and there was so much plant food that they did not try to preserve it - Found them to be in good health - The Ju/hoansi lived under water holes - Travel 10 km in search of plants and animals - Numbered from 30 to 40 people during the rainy season and when waterholes were full, but 100 to 200 during the dry season - They did little food processing, had to get food supplies every 3 to 4 days - Vegetables was 60-80 percent of their diet - Major food source was the mongongo nut – provided 50% of the calorie intake - Ate about 20 of the 80 species of edible plants - Meat provided by giraffe, antelope, or other large game animal - Meat intake was 80 to 90 kilograms – amount comparable to the meat consumption of developed countries - If it was deficient – was in carbs because did not have bread, pasta, rice or sugar - Spent 2.3 days at work with six hours a day – not a lot of time - Contrary to the stereotype that they struggle to obtain food, they don’t have to work very hard to make a living - Why then did we abandon old practices and start domesticating plants and animals in villages and towns The Transition to Agriculture - See the gradual shift from foraging to modern industrial society less as a progress of development and more as a necessary evil - Emphasize the influence of population growth and population density o The number of people in a given area - Mark cohen set out to explain why individuals abandon foraging for agriculture and why so many did in a relative short period of time - Foragers settle in a given area to collect food, then as food resources decline in one spot they enlarge the area within which they travel in seach of them - The groups my decide to move to another area where food is more plentiful in order to reduce the distance that members must travel - When different groups began to bump into eachother, or when they found they had to travel farther and farther to get to enough food to feed a growing population – began to cultivate their own crops - It was a necessary consequence of population growth rather then a consequence of a discovery or invention that was adopted - When they began to harvest crops and stayed in one area, they did not need to travel as much - Began to use slash and burn techniques – higly efficient and productive - Requires a large tracts of available land because once the plot is farmed, it requires 20 to 30 years for the trees to grow back so that they can be used again - If the population increases then plots need to be used more frequently, perhaps every 5 or 10 years - Swidden agriculture is efficient only as long as the population and the amount of land available remain constant - Farmland may become scarce not only because of increasing population but also because of environmental changes o New agricultural techniques must be developed to increase the yield on the available land o The more food need to produce, the more complex the technology, and the more compelx the technology, the greater the amount of work involved - Why then abandon swidden? Because there is not enough land to support the population - If you have enough land its best to keep your methods simple, changing them only if population increases or the supply of the land decreases - If there is more people then there is available land to feed them, conflict may arise between people vying for the available resources - If the growing population decises to intensify the methods of growing crops, there is a need for greater social organization o Irrigation requires the digging of ditches, the building of pumps to bring water to the fields and to drain water from them, and the coordination of one and sometimes two harvests a year - Whether they decide to deal with the increasing ratio between people by intensifying efforst to produce more food or address the problem by denying people access to necessary resources – the groundwork is laid for a stratified society to emeger – need for organization - Changes in food production techniques were necessary responses to increases in population or population density and this in turn created then need for more formal, more elaborate social and political institutions – to organize labour and to maintain order among more and more people - We have vastly decreased the amount of human labour required to produce food, we have vastly increased the amount of non human energy required - 1 calories of nonhuman energy in the form on non-renewable fossil fuels and for every 8 calories we produce Industrial Agriculture: Producing Potato Calories - Bodley compared the production of sweet potatoes in New Guinea with potato production in the United States - New Guinea o Slash and burn agriculture: plots of land are burned and clearned and planted using digging sticks o Cooked in pits and eaten o 21% of their diet of 204 people o Used only 10% of arable land and there was no danger of resource depletion o 12.4 million calories per hectare - Canada and US o 29.6 million calories per hectare o Vast amount of nonhuman energy is expended o Chemicals applied to maintain soil conditions and to control insects and fungi o need special machines to cut, seed, harvest, dig and plant o the actual energy costs per calorie were lower in New Guinea o deal with distribution costs o the energy used to distribute exceeds the amount used to produce o 8 to 12 calories of energy to produce a single calorie of food - The human and nonhuman used to convert potato to potato chips is far greater then the energy expended in New Guinea Question 2.2 How can we explain the vast inequality between the rich and the poor? - Not explained the vast divisions in the modern world between rich and poor - Why do most people in the industrial world enjoy a standard of living superior to those who live in underdeveloped countries - The textile industry in England in the last hald of the 18 century and the first half of the 19 - Coincides with the Industrial Revolution, which was marked by urbanization and by shift in production from agriculture to industrial goods - Before the Industrial Revolution o China was the richest country in the world during the 16 and 17 centuries o India was a developing cotton textile industry o England was largely rural and agricultural country - Textile production was a handicraft industry, most steps in the production of wool cloth, from cutting and degreasing the wool, to dying and spinning the thread, to weaving the cloth were in the hands of rural families or small cooperative - Cloth or wool might be sold at a local market or fair, more often, it was sold to urban-based merchants or traders for resale at fairs or for shipment overseas - Traders and merchants discovered that they needed to better control the type, quantity and quality of cloth produced by spinners and weavers - Putting out system – merchants supplied weavers with materials and required them to produce cloth of the desired type o Delivered the supplied and tools and picked up the finished products, generally paying the producers for each piece produced o Gave them more control over production o Cheap labour o Demand for textiles slacked o Easily controlled how much was produced by limited the materials put out - English merchants transformed the putting out system into a factory system - Merchants not particularly anxious to invest in factories - Profit from manufacturing, were not nearly as great as profits from trade - Required new mechanisms of control – early factories were like prisons - Had to keep the factory busy to pay for the investment in buildings and technology o Had to create demand for the product - The only thing that made it attractive were the various gov’t subsidies or laws that ensured a flow of cheap labour - Able to draw workers who had been forced from their land by the enclosure laws, which were pushing peasant farmers off their common lands at the behest of the landowners, who wished to grow crops for sale to England’s growing population - No minimum wage law or child labour laws o Could exploit the cheap labour of women and children - Gov’t played a major role in creating and defending overseas markets as well as sources of raw materials such as cotton - The expansion of the textie industry had multiple effects o Fueled the growth of cities o Spurred technological development  Bottlenecks and spinners o Produced great wealth and employed millions of workers o Transformed England into the wealthiest country in the world o The manufacture of iron and food production further increased the wealth of the growing British Empire - Where was the market for all these textile products to be found and where were the raw materials notably cotton to come from? - Textile manufactururs were able to ssell much of their products to markets in Europe and the growing markets of the Americas - Still competition: England was not the only textile producer : Holland, France and Spain - Competition and the growing military superiority of Western Europe had consequences for other parts of the world The British in India - India was a major trading country - British was granted monopoly in East Asian trade by the British Gov’t - Established John company in the city of Calcutta – traded for fine silkds, cotton, sugar, rice, etc. - 1750 – British provoked the rulers of Bengal into war, defeating them – gained control of British weavers - From the base of Bengal, began to extend its control over much of the Indian Subcontinent - India had been producing cloth that was cheaper and better then English textiles – the British prohibited the British East India Company from importing calicoes into England - English factories started producing copies of popular Indian textiles for sale in England - India was requires to admit English manufacturers free of tariffs – destroyed thriving India’s textile industry - India was still a major producer of raw cotton – not favored by English and American manufacturers, although China was willing to import plenty of it - Problem trading into China – Europeans had little that the Chinese wanted or needed - Opium was illegal in China, but china was incapableof cutting off supplies - Smuggling opium into China was hugely profitable for British merchants, as well as the Americans and the French - Chinese govt tried to halt the trade in 1839 by seizing opium held by British - The british government intervened militarily and forced the Chinese gov’t to stop enforcing its own opium laws - The british led opium trade from Indian to China had three results o Reversed the flow of money between china and the rest of the world o One out of every ten Chinese was addicted to opium o Textile exports from England to India and China increased from 6 percent of total British exports to more then 50% Cotton, Slavery and the Trail of Tears - The British was able to sell raw Indian cotton to China, but Indian cotton was not acceptable to European and North Markets - Produced short fibre instead of the desirable long fibres - Cotton production in the Americas was labour intensive and to be profitable, it required slave labour - It was never uncommon for groups at war to turn captured enemies into slaves - Grew in the 15 and 19 centuries in response to Europe’s economic expansion and the demands of trade - Between 1451-1600, 275000 slavers were taken from Africa to the United States and Europe - The production of cotton using slave labour fuelled the Industrial Revolution in the United States - 1815-1860- raw constituted half the value of domestic exports - Cotton gin – invention that separated the seeds frmom the raw cotton fibre - Cleaned cotton 50 times more quickly then in the past - Cotton production required cheap labour and slave laour was half the price of wage labour - Each plantation required between 50 to 200 slaves, depending on the quality of the soil - British demand for American cotton was obviously not the cause of slavery but it ensured the continuance in the United States - Story of the forced removal of the Cherokee in the United States - Viewed as the more advanced Native American groups - Lived in large autonomous villages – occupy large tracts of land from North Carolina into Georgia - Georgia Compact of 1802 o Called for Georgia and the Carolinas to give up claims to western territorie in exchange for land held by southeastern indigenous groups, including the Cherokee - Fought the removal – modernization plan o Built plantations, holding slaves, had their own newspapers, schools and alphabets - Among the soldiers under Andrew Jackson who attacked Canada in the War of 1812 - Wanted to repeal the Georgia Compact but to no avail - Army was sent into forcibly move the population as land speculators flooded on what had been prosperous Cherokee farms and plantations - White farmers, using Native American land and African labour produce cotton for the British and American textile industries Progress for Whom? - British textile produced great wealth for some people - Destroyed textile manufacturing in India - Led to the colonization of India - Escalated opium into China - Extended slavery in the United States while draining Africa of productive labour - Enhanced the wealth of the United States - Drove indigienous peoples from their land - Destroyed textile manufacture by artisans in areas of the world where British textiles were sold - Britian was not the only country seeking to open and control overseas markets : France, Germany, Netherlands - Growing European demand for sugar, cocoa, palm oil, tobacco and coffee converted from subsistence farming to cash crop farming - Turned dependant wage labours or unemployed poor - The high point of European colonial expansion came later than the events described here, in the last quarter of the 19 century and the first decades of the 20 th Question 2.3: How Do Globalization, Economic Development, and Cultural Diversity Relate to One another? - People begin selling their labour not because wage labour offered a better life, because they no longer possessed land on which to secure a livelihood - The availability of jobs was subject to the whims of the market and the rise and fall in the demand of products - The rate of economic growth and technological advancement was astounding and resulted in a dramatic improvement in the standard of living of most people in Western countries - Countries begin to achieve independence from their colonial masters, national leaders promised to improve the lives of their people and the leaders in the rich countries promised to help o Economic development - This ideology included the assumption that the worlds nonindustrial countries were backward and needed to progress or develop – a large word for “Westernize” - Three key assumptions shaped the idea of economic development that emerged: o Economic growth and development is the solution to national as well as global problems o Global economic integration will contribute to solving global ecological and social problems o Foreign assistance to undeveloped countries will make things better - Countries that wish to develop sought foreign loans and investments to create an industrial infrastructure – dams, power, stations, ports, roads and railways - Loans allow underdeveloped countries to produce export goods such as cotton, sugar, palm oil, tobacco, coffee and cocoa o What was different from this theory was the degree of support that the wealthier nations were offering the poorer - Major institution that promoted economic development is the World Bank o The allied powers were still at war with Germany and Japan o Develop plans for the economic reconstruction of these countries that were being devastated by the war and to develop a postwar plan for worldwide economic and monetary stability - International Monetary Fund o Provided by member nations o In the form of loan guarantees o Loan must be made without regard for political or non-economic factors and that the bank must not interfere in the political affairs of any member or debtor nation - Stated making huge loans to countries like Brazil, Indonesia, India o Supposed to transform their economies, generate wealth, and alleviate poverty o These loans actually increased poverty in the Third World The Case of Brazil - Made a conscious decision to industrialize - Using money from world bank built dams, roads, factories, industries - Became a model of modern industrialization factories creating jobs, and people flocked to the sities for employment as Brazils cities began to rival any in the West - To repay debts – needed to earn foreign income - Increased cash crops - More of the products required modern farming techniques and lots of land - Small farmers forced off had to find jobs in the cities - Those who found jobs on large farms – not paid enough to purchase the food they once grown themselves on their small plots - Did increase production of some food crops – but because poor Brazilians could not pay as much for beef as North American and Europeans, the Beef was exported - Other countries could not keep up their payments to the World Bank – allowed to renegotiate their loans o Had to agree to reduce their government spending – public education, welfare, housing and health - Have increased their wealth but more then 40 percent of still living in poverty - Development brought destruction o Began delivering payments on a loan for Brazil to construct a road through the Amazon rain forest and to build new settlements o Half a million settlers can in but the government was not prepared for this level of migration and the new migrants were forced to burn forests to grow food to survive - Poor soil would not support agriculture for more then a couple of years – were left with worthless land - Life threatening diseases developed, rates of malaria approached 100% and mortatlity rates of 25-50% were not uncomman Do Progress and Development Inevitably Lead to Inequality - Many argue that economic and industrial development takes time and that countries such as Brazil and India are now beginning to see a marked improvement in their economic situation - The non-western countries that have succeeded in emulating the West were never colonized by the West as were the poor countries of Africa and South America - Is the world off better off after the Industrial Revolution o The answer depends on who you are o Fortunate enough to be a labourer, businessperson, or professional in a wealthy country – you are likely to be better off than your counterpart of five centuries ago o Labourere or a small farmer – in one of the worlds poor countries – its hard oto see you could be better off than your peasant counterpart o If you are one of the landless, unemployed, underemployed – hard to see how your life could be an improvement over that of your counterpart two centuries before Globalization and Cultural Diversity - Socities have not been kinds to groups that have retained or tried to retain a way of life that is thousands of years old - Living in small, scattered groups with little need for complex political structures or technology, they have often been no match for the well-armed, organized acquisitive people and governments who have coveted their land or labour - Globalization – the expansion into virtually all areas of the world of culture that assumes that economic trade is the source of all well being - In efforts to pay debts – forced to export goods and commodities to gain cash to repay debts o Support for small-scale agriculturists or peasant farmers has been reduced as a result - North American Free Trade Agreement o Compelled Mexico to allow large-scale corn farmers in the US to sell their product in Mexico at a price lower than what the peasants could meet o Small Mexican farmers might still have been able to compete except that the Mexican gov’t nullified of a portion of the national constituation that gave peasant farmers access to land on which to grow their crops - The same economic forces that are undermining traditional cultures are also promoting environmental destruction o Guarani of Paraguayin o Lives centred on forests, animals, hunting, fishing o They entered trade with Europeans, mostly by gathering and selling caffeine o Trade arrangements did not greatly affect Guarani life, since they would gather and sell yerba mate only when they needed some Westernn item such as a metal pot o Exploited the rain forest in sustainable ways by adapting to it rather then trying to change it o Then in the 1970s – international trade arrangements, both the Guaran and the rain forest begin to decline o In the 1970s enjoyed an economic boom fuelled by loans from the World Bank and the other international leaders o This economic miracle was accomplished by brining more land under cultivation  Involved cutting down forests, selling timber and converting the cleared land into farmland or pasture  The rate of rainforest destruction accelerated rapidly o The groups livelihood had been destroyed o New roads have brought them lots of settlers eager to stake claims to come portion of the forest, clear it of trees and grow cash crops o Forest soil loses its nutrients when the forest canopy that protected it has been destroyed o All the animals and plants have been decimated o The wages they can make workers for farmers or in other odd jobs are inadequate to support families, illness and disease have increased and suicide rates in the past ten years have tripled Finding Hope in the Face of Cultural Devestation - What does it mean to experience cultural devastation? - All cultures are vulnerable - Peoples view of the world , what they count as important, what they count as important, what they value, and what the good life means to them are all subject to sudden upheaval - When Columbus arrived to the America’s there were hundred of thriving socities o Devastated by European diseases, which wiped out about 90 percent of the population o This continued well into the 19 century as the remnants of these people struggled to adapt to the westward expansion of settlers o Adaptation is not the only possibility - Lubicon Cree have lived, hunted and trapped within a 110 kilometre radius o Avoided contact with settlers until the end of the 19 century o happening elsewhere - approached the Canadian government about signing a treaty o 1939 – finally recognized as a band under the federal law and the groundwork was laid for establishing a reserve of 65 square kilometres o The second world war created a shortage of surveyors and the required survey never happened o The population was decimated by illness in the first half of the 20 century o As a result they were deemed to be a small population to warrant a treaty or a reserve o Decided that the young should learn English in order to pursue land claims o Young started to lay the legal groundwork for the land claim – but oil exploration started to occur in northern Alberta and oil and gas corporations started to extract resources from land that the Lubicon have never legally relinquished o Have to walk a fine line between trying to work within the legal system and maintain their own indigenous knowledge on the other - Drum Beat Conference – hosted indigenous people from all over North America and was aimed at raising awareness of First Nations issues - Civilized socities are responsible for driving small scale socities to the edge of cultural devastation forcing them to experience development through the dark side – poverty, disease and forced labour - If we concludethat progress is all positive – we short change ourselves - By destroying small scale socities – eliminating systems of meaning that hold solutions to compelling world problems such as environmental destruction, intergroup conflict, poverty and sickness The Dobe Ju/’hoansi – Chapter 12 The Ju/hoansi Today - More cash but also more poverty - Sharing had declined and interpersonal conflict – fueled by alcohol - Government controls their lives more tightly - Outside forces seeking to control the economic resources of the Dobe area - The 90 mile road from Nokaneng – once condiered the worst in the district if not the whole country o Trip that takes eight hours was reduced to three - Goshe hasn’t changed much o Replaced pitwells, and the homesteads of mud-walled houses look prosperous - Kangwa – the capital of the Qangwa sub-district o Become an administratice and services center o School with eight grades o Student hostel o Clinic with birthing wing o Police station o Etc - Dobe o Three decade of cattle grazing have transformed the Dobe pan into a dustbowl o No more berry bushes o Water for humans come form a borehole o Expanded from one or two small camps to eigh large semipermanent villages o Important transit point and stopover for visitors to and from Namibia o Third largest nation in the Qangwa District o Presence of European missionary in a nearby mahopa Dobe: Three Decades of Change - Three quarters of the Dobe area – Ju/hoansi have been living in camps based primarily on hunting and gathering - Virtual absence of institutions - Now have transformed from a society - of foragers to a society of small-holders who eked out a living by herding, farming and craft production along with hunting and gathering - A fence was built around the Botswana- Namibia border, diving the Dobe area from the adjacent Nyae Nyae - Forgaers had to climb the fence to reach food on the other side - 1967 – the first store opened making goods available to the Ju/hoansi - 1973 – the first school was opened at Kangwa mid 1970s the first barehole was drilled - 1978- there was a lot of drought, feeding programs were instituted for all the Ju/hoansi residents – more dependant on the gov’t - 1979- men crossed the border to join the South Afrcan Defence Force - 1980 – clinic opened staffed by nurse - Building of two airstrips and a radio link – became possible for doctors to come in and evacuate ill people Life in the 2000’s - Bee-hived shaped grass huts are gone – replaced by mud houses - Villages are circular and tight knit - Instead of looking at the central open space at each other the houses face the kraal where cattle and goats are kept o Shift from reliance on each other to reliance on property in the form of herds - Hunting and gathering provided 85% of the food before and now provides 30 o Rest is meat and milk from domesticated stock o Governent meals o Vast quantities of heavilty sugared tea whitened with powdered milk o Foraged food and gardens make up the rest of the diet - Famous for having very low serum cholestroals and low blood pressure that did not rise with age - Choloestrol sounts and blood pressures are higher - Cases of hypertension and heart disease - Heavier smoking, alcohol consumption and changes in lifestyle - The institution of loan cattle – or mafisa - Before 20% of the Ju/hoansi families had some involvement as mafisa herders and the numbers increasing - Became bitter with mafisa – complained that cattle promised in payment for services rendered were not being paid and without it was difficult to start ones own herd - Lack of mafisa has soured some Ju/hoansi about their prospects in Botswana - Late 1980s – people started to leave and cross the fence to their relatives in Namibia - Craft production has taken a major step forward o Organizations purchasing increased volumes of Dobe Area crafts – pumps considerable cash into the economy - Still not many opportunities for productive investments of the processed in infrastructure such as plows, bicycles, cattle, horses - Large income spent on beer, brandy, home-brew materials, bags of candies, sugar, tea, powdered milk - When the first school opened – reluctance in registering their children, scraping together enough money for fees - Withdrew children when they were forbidden to speak their own language - Children often failed to attend classes and walked back to their home villages - With the large majority of Ju/hoansi with no schooling the job prospects are poor and a life of odd jobs combined with heavy drinking is not uncommon o Attracted to Namibia where jobs in the South African Army were the only ones available - Dobe Ju/hoansi face serious difficulties o When
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