ANTA02H3 Chapter Notes -Original Affluent Society, Relate, International Monetary Fund

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA02H3
Professor
Cultural Anthropology
Page 183-184
- A thin person is judged to be superior to a heavier person
- Children described the “thinner” figure as friendly, kind, happy and polite while they described
the heavier figure as lazy, lying, and cheating
- Teachers perceive heavier children as having more behavioural problems than others and as
being less well like by their classmates
- People who overweight often face hostile work environments, and job discrimination
- Workers judges unattractive by their peers are described in more negative terms
- Three year study among high school girls in Arizona
o During adolescent they gain 11.5 grams of body fat and thus are more critical about
their bodies
o Thinness is good, fatness is bad and dieting is the way to get in shape
o Most of the girls are thinking about their bodies “all of the time” or a “lot of the time”
- Formed their perfect body image from television, films and magazines
- The ideal women was tall, long hair, long legs, flat stomach and good clothes
- Being thin was the ticket to happiness and popularity
- They made moral judgements about them believing that if someone who was overweight really
wanted to lose wight, they could
- Not losing weight implied that the girl was unconcerned about her personal appearance or was
lazy
Trobianders Chapter 4 Youth and Sexuality
- Everyone knows about everyone
- Girls start sleeping with boys when they are about 13
- Only sleep with boys of the same village and the same holds true for boys
- When they talk about giving they are talking about caring and generosity
- Giving expresses not only about caring but also intention
- Comminucates desires and plans but may also attempt to control others by establishing debt
- Each act of giving was once a pledge of caring and an act of obligating another person
- To maintain ones autonomy , a villager keeps his or her htoughts about other private but in the
form and style of ones giving are messages about the givers intention
- If her brother gave her yams that were too soft and small, that means he did not really want her
to have them
- To influence or even to try to control another person is difficult, yet such efforts are a major
preoccupation
- Adolescents learn to deal with the wills and plans of others through their sexuality
- Intention is written in their bodies, in their walk and in their eyes
o Want to “make somebody want you”
Adolescent Sexuality
- By the time they are seven or eight, they play erotic games or imitate adult seductive attitudes
- Four or five years late they begin to pursue sexual partners in earnest
- A rendezvous may be arranged at the beach or in a secluded place away from the gardens and
the village
- They do not sleep in their parents house
- The young boys live in one ho
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- use and young girls in another they have freedom of briging loves to their sleeping quartiers
- Watched by older villagers who evaluate their potential
- Little pressure to put them to engage full time in adult productive pursuits
- Only when villagers are married, have children and are fully commited to economic and political
endeavours will they be considered adults
- Lovers send messages back and forth to arrange evening meet places
- Conversations are filled with sexual metaphors that express a person intention
- Young women are just as assertive and dominant as men in their pursuit or refusal of a lover
- It is important to look attractive and to act in a manner that conveys independence and
fearlessness
- Individual arrogance gives amessage of overt competitive behavior
- A person must learn to be strong without appearing to be
- A persons intentions are carried out covertly through magic spells that are explicitely define the
intensity of rivalry and the power of seduction
- When a young women is complimented for her beauty, the compliment must be repaid so that
the favored person does not become too proud
o Weteli tied a string around Boiyagwa’s arm, symbolizing her beauty and talent
o Boiyangas had to give Weteli tobacco and betal nuts as payment for tying the strong
- To turn an initial attracton into a sexual liason demands more jokes and glances
- Young men must give betal nuts and tobacco to the women they want, expressing their ability
to continue to give presents as long as the relationship lasts
- In seduction, giving is not enough, finally love magic must be used to overcome strong
opposition
Seduction with Magic
- The most common way for young people to obtain magic spells is to learn them from their older
kin by giving food, tobacco and money
- When they die, they might not have taught the full spell or all the magic they knew spells are
often lost in part or fully
- Married women learns something very important spells froma lover who is visiting from another
island
o The man gives the spell because he loves her very much and wants to give her more
then betal nuts or tobacco
- When men travel to other islands, spells may also be bought from others
- Words for beauty magic chanted onto coconut oil, which is then rubbed on the skin or into
flowers and herbs that decorate armbands and hair
- Certain spells are though to make a person become so beautiful that even those recognized as
physically ugly appear handsome in the eyes of women or man who wants them
- Special beauty magic where a pearl shell is passed over the persons face so that they face will
take on the white, shiny, qualities of the shell, making the person strinkingly enticing
- When they reach their mid teens, the lovers meetings take up most of the night and a new affair
may last for several months or longer
- Seriousness will enter these meetings where marriage may be the next important step
- To project ones oewn will over someone else necessitates exercising control of another person
feelings
- Must resort to the most powerful kinds of magic spells known and practised by few adults
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- The person will not eat or listen to the advice of others, they will do nothing but long for her or
his lover
- The words of the strong love spell are chanted into betel or tobacco and then must be
transmitted to the person
o Have to be inhaled or ingested
o Have to enter a persons body so it controls his or her thoughts
- Believe that the agent carrying the magic only becomes effective when the words are chanted
again and again throughout the night or for several days so that the betal nut or tobacco
absorbs its power from the act of speech itself
- However, a suspecting women may refuse the betal nut and the love magic can be averted
relationships are full of chance
- The line between influencing others while not allowing others to gain control of oneself may be
carefully learned
- Effective spells collapse a persons autonomy and establish control over the other persons
thoughts
- Sexual liasons give adolescents the time and occasion to experiment with all the possibilities and
problems that adults face in creating relationships with those that are not relatives
- Must learn to be careful and fearless
Choosing one Lover
- When a man beings to meet the same lover again and agin rejects the advances of others
strong love magic has been used
- She spends the night with him in her house and must leave before the other villager awaken and
begin to congregate on their verandas
- No one should see lovers entering or leaving eachothers houses
- A serious part of lovemaking is to bite off eyelashes and put scratches on their backs news
such as this gossip
- There are not taboos about chewing betal or smoking together, lovers must never eat food in
the company of one another
- Peer constraints may upset the privacy of the relationship
- Jealousy is a big problem confrontations because two girls want to sleep with the same man
o Ex. Ester and Ruth got into a public dispute, hitting eachother
o Brought great shame to their matrilineal kins
o Told to work hard leaning to make womens wealth rather then fighting for boys
- Sometimes ones freedom is to have the person one wants is curtailed by public reprimands
And peer retaliation
- High status and rank provide added support for exerting ones will, but even young people who
are members of chiefly lineages face rejection
- As people get older, their interests turn to marriage, their independence becomes more
restricted
- Adult interference and marriage is about adult productive concerns
Looking for a Spouse
- Although there is a lot of emphasis on beauty , love and magi during adolescent years ..
marriage is rarely considered only as a love match
- Invoves not just two people but many other villagers as well
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Document Summary

A thin person is judged to be superior to a heavier person. Children described the thinner figure as friendly, kind, happy and polite while they described the heavier figure as lazy, lying, and cheating. Teachers perceive heavier children as having more behavioural problems than others and as being less well like by their classmates. People who overweight often face hostile work environments, and job discrimination. Workers judges unattractive by their peers are described in more negative terms. Formed their perfect body image from television, films and magazines. The ideal women was tall, long hair, long legs, flat stomach and good clothes. Being thin was the ticket to happiness and popularity. They made moral judgements about them believing that if someone who was overweight really wanted to lose wight, they could. Not losing weight implied that the girl was unconcerned about her personal appearance or was lazy. Girls start sleeping with boys when they are about 13.

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