Textbook Notes (362,755)
Canada (158,052)
Anthropology (232)
ANT253H1 (58)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4-Language Levels

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Marcel Danesi

Chapter 4 Language Levels y Alphabet characters did not always provide guide to pronunciationo Ex With f with ph with ghy International Phonetic Alphabet in which one symbol usually an alphabet character will be understood to represent one and only one soundo Ex f used by IPA to indicate f sound represented by f ph ghin words 1 Phonetic description the actual physical description of the sounds used by a language2 Phonetic analysis analysis of how these relate to each other structurally 3 Description of syllable structure 4 Prosodic analysis description of intonation features stress patterns5 Orthographic analysis investigation of relation between sounds and writing symbolsDescribing Language y Minimal free forms words that convey single piece of meaning o Ex Logicy Bound forms forms that occur in tandem with otherso Ex Illogical contains two bound forms in addition to minimal free form logic the negative prefix il which convey meaning opposite of and the suffix al which convey act or process of being somethingo Bound forms may be roots rasp in raspberry endings s in boys ed in played ing in playing or internal alterations indicating tense sing sang and number mousemice y Morphology the description of how words are put together in a language and of what bits and pieces of sound can coalesce into makeup and meaning of words y Syntactic structure word order in sentence structureo Subject is what or who the sentence is about and predicate indicates what the subject does thinks says etc or else what is said thought about the subjectThe Phonological Level y f sound produced by1 making lower tip touch upper teethlabiodental 2 expelling airstream emanating from lung in constricted wayfricative 3 keeping vocal cords in larynx taut non vibrating voicelessif it is vibrating voiced y Thus the f known as a phone stands for voiceless labiodental fricativey Moveable parts are the lips jaws tongue and vocal cords and modify flow of airy Stationary parts include teeth alveolar arch behind them hard palate soft palate uvula and pharyncy Only sounds produced through latter cavity are named nasal y Sounds made by touching two movable parts like p of pill need both lips or made with movable and immovable like f are named in terms of organs that make juncture point of articulation y Tongue in articulator in the production of consonants is not expressed like t sound which is produced with tongue touching alveolar arch alveolary in the production of vowels the various parts of the tongue may be named1 apex tip 2 lamina blade 3 dorsum back y ways in which airstream modified by movable parts is manner of articulationo expelling airstream through mouth without blackage a in cane o blocking it completely and then expelling it abruptly p in pill o directing it partially through the nasal cavity n in nose o expelling it on either side of the tongue as it makes contact with teeth alveolar ridge or palateo expelling it as light vibrating contact is made with tongue against soft palate r in rare o expelling It through constriction in the front of mouth f in fact y vowels produced when airstream allowed to pass through mouth wo blockage y consonants produced by means of some modifying blockage partial or complete of airstream y vowels described by position of tongue on its vertical or horizontal axiso ex Front of tongue moved low to high in making beeto back of tongue raised for bootTongue in frontTongue in centre Tongue in back Beet Bust High bootbook Bit But Midboat Bait bot Low boughtBet batMain points of articulation y bilabial produced wupper and lower lips touching b in bin and m in man y labiodental produced with lower lip touching the upper teeth the f in fun and v in vine y dental produced with tongue touching upper teeth or with upper and lower teeth close together the t in toy d in did n in nose s in sip and z in zip the l in love y interdental produced by putting tongue between the teeth thein thing y alveolar produced with tongue touching the gum ridge frontt in train d in drain y alveopalatal produced with tongue touching the soft palateback c in chin j in jar j in shin y velar produced with the back of the tongue touching the soft palate k in king g in game y uvular produced at or near the uvulalike to tam the x in German ich y glottal produced at or near throat h in house
More Less

Related notes for ANT253H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.