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Astronomy & Astrophysics
Michael Reid

AST101H1: Reading Notes 1 Nov. 1st & 6th: 11.1-11.3 Jovian Planet Systems 11.1: A Different Kind of Planet: → Jovian Planet Composition:  Figure 11.1 & 11.2 → Jovian Planet Rotation and Shape:  Jovian planets’ rotation rates vary with latitude  Figure 11.3 → What are Jovian Planets like on the inside?  Figure 11.4 & 11.5  Jupiter’s internal heat: excess heatstill contracting, as if it’s not finished forming; contraction: converts gravitational potential energy to thermal energy; emits nearly twice as much energy as it receives from the sun (Saturn & Neptune too)ongoing source of heat; Saturn: differentiation of helium droplets; Jupiter: contraction; Neptune: contraction → Jovian planets’ weather:  Hydrogen compounds responsible for Jovian planets’ appearance: clouds and variety of colours  Jovian planet weather: winds and weather, colourful, cloudy skies, and enormous storms  Jupiter: thermosphere; stratosphere; troposphere (greenhouse gases)—convection: thick clouds  Different gases condense at different temperatures to form clouds; leading to distinctive cloud layers at different altitudes  Figure 11.6 & 11.7  Methane condenses in very cold upper troposphere of Uranus and Neptuneblue colour  Cloudsdetermine colours → Jovian planets have magnetospheres—Jupiter: strongest; weaker further from the sun and smaller they are (less solar wind & smaller metallic mantle/core); Figure 11.13 11.2: A Wealth of Worlds: Satellites of Ice and Rock: → Most Jovian moons are in synchronous rotation with their planets—strong tidal forces → Io: Jupiter’s moon; most volcanically active world in solar system  Energy for tidal heating ultimately comes from Jupiter’s rotation → Orbital Resonance: orbital periods falling into a mathematical relationship
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