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BIO120H1 (305)
Chapter 5

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University of Toronto St. George
James Thomson

Chapter 5 DNA replication Repair and RecombinationMaintenance of DNA sequencesShort term survival of cell depends on preventing changes in DNA environmental radiation chemicalslongterm survival of species requires DNA sequences to be changeable over many generation Cells want to remain same but selection pressures force evolutionMutation rates are extremely low Def of mutation rate the rate at which observable changes occur in DNA sequences How are they measured directly from experimentscarried out Example is EColi which divides once every 40 min producing billions of cells in one day When looking at all of those cells it is easy to identifythe small fration of the bacteria that have suffered the mutation in a particular gene Hard to tell actual mutation rate as mutations can be silent so only really the deadly mutations are viewable 9 Ratebacteria display a mutation rate of about 1 nucleotide change per 10nucleotides per cell generationC elegans examplegeneration time is 4 days Grown using self fertilization DNA of the original CElegans is then compared to the DNA of its offspring and chang
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