Jan 29, 2013
2. the roman army, the fabian expedition
3. the gauls in rome
4. conquest of latium
5. samnites, fierce enemies
6. a threat from the east? (alex the great)
7. king pyrrhus
8. first punic war
continuation from last week
- treaty between carthage and rome.
- estruscan gold tablet
- free trade* "men landing for trade.... let the price be secure…"
- certain rules for how to do business…do it in an official way.
- if you have power, you land somehere, you take whatever you want to take -_-; pirates. if you
have the chance, you took it.
- time where warfare was iffy…. ex. what happens at night? can you survive? wanted to make
some kind of rules. carthagians promised not to harm the cities.
- built fort in latium…. in roman territory?....
- carthaginans plans on creating colonies and finding stretch? setlers…. but romans war off?
treaties= you shall have no fort here. if enter in arms it’s a no no.
- why would they? beause of their aim for expedition… seek shelter, hungry, etc.
- LR 20 and 21 (treatie)
- first with latins from 493 allegedly- no eye witness) for LR 20. somewhat uncertain
- second is Aequi* SE of rome. 467- other agreeemenet. buildling up power and secure power.
- legalistic apporach to things. write and sign, swear oath and appeal to the gods** who is always
safeguarding and the fact that you appeal to the gods making you stronger.
- roman legal mind at work*
- also formulae… LR 19, unconditional surrender* early part of livy's history of ROme. we know
that later on, romans used formulae where asking, defeated armies, representatitve of the
defeated and asked them to swear an oath and say certain things which made roman power
absolute* accorrding to roman concepts. and get out of the situation. this is bad because victors
could do whatever they want. make sure there was no conditions. do whatever you want.
- formula had to go through it and roman included anything that’s valuable to them.
roman army: early expedition
- involved in period of Roman expansion. military one of course. aspect of warfare was included
as well. implicitly and explicitly. weren't looking at well prepared at large war.
- life of Corlianus.
- whole population was always involved. no doubt much warfare took place in these C of middle
- why can be quiet certain this is the society, times we are dealing with? what are our sources for
warfare? great military activities. every year something going on, consul going into expedition. - literary sources, archaeological finds- sites, weaponry*, inscriptions, statues, tombs. it was a
- there are few other ways of coming important; ex. magistrate. but function of these officials
were to lead men in battle- to conquer and come home with wealth/treasury.
- context of ancient warrior culture, we find reading of Fabius.
- city of VEJI* family name FABIUS* and pl. FABII*. a patrician family: own family members
become army… but it doesn’t say what happened. the family consisted of all being heroes.
- certain purpose for FABII's? show how patricians and considered themselves of defending all of
Rome. displaying their power. *
- being asked to sign up and report to consul but here, there is one family who does it voluntarily.
and according to livy, its dated 479* a powerful patrician family who take over role of the state
and the others said okay. and no one objected it either. Livy's account is romantic in some ways.
'these are heroes' the whole clan of 306. the oldest male was the leader and the others were
sons, cousins, second cousins, etc. out they marched.
- number of powerful senators and you don’t really manage to keep ppl to normal rules.
- of course, endangering the whole nation… >.< powerful city state and able to walk away and
march out. and at the end, ended badly for the Fabii. CREMERA****
- how livy found the story, starts out well but little bit of a tragedy at the end. all actually were cut
down. why? how did livy told the story? problem through family records** ancestors.
- roman historian called FABIUS PICTOR** alive during the hannibal second punic war. wrote
roman history. first few roman historian* small fragments only preserved. but he thinks he
surely included much good materials about his own ancestors.
LR 45 talking about military forms. talks mostl y about military reform from changing the way the
formation of phalnx from manipults… more mobile units of soliders. made up of different lines of
soliders making roman army more adaptable to battle*
- question beoming more mobile.
- there are number of terms what the different osliders were called. its not a military history. but
its interesting in development of roman society.
Early Roman Triarii* (oldest and wealthiest amongst men who can afford weaponry.)
- early roman elements…. arahelogical evidence
- shield, breast plates, javelin, swords, spear,
- historians describe and explains about them
- livy talks about it in connection to events took place 340BCE. what was the situation in particular
which wouldve neccesitated the armour? war against latin and serious wars against samnites.
needed to reform their tactics. smaller units= sned them here, send them there. join into great
- making differences between older and younger men and so forth.
- early rome even before 340. round helmet. romans surely influnced by greek military tactics and
eventually you have the macedonian phalanx-heavy used for fighting on plains/ground making
the mass account with heavy weapons.
- but romans fighting samnite was useless because less space in valleys…mts.. thus, needed
smaller units. javelins were thrown and etc.
Early Roman Principes
Roman HASTATI* (distinguished by helmet same…sheilf same… but breast plate protect heart. and
swrods) 2nd C BCE.
polybius describe front line battle line… young men comes first… already sacrifice than men who advanced in age. behind were the principes
with better weapons. described. polybius writes about how they go to battles. and engage if hastati fails,
intervals… who then principes took up the fight* triarii left leg advance…spear planted on the ground.
(read the book). greater advantage for managing with smaller units*
390/387 the GALLIC CATASTROPHE * (attack of Gallic band)
- psychological damaged Rome.
- problem that they thought in good ol days full of heroes… yet. in controvertibly… these gauls
barbairans came to ROme and seiged city of ROme. which was worrying for the Romans.
- the gauls another word for them were CELTS* in Asia Minor, a roman province which called
GALATIA* it’s the same name with celtics, guals.
- the populatiion spread out and not much material written on them.
- they were conquered by romans at the end.
- LR 11.1, story from polybius: defeat romans at Battle of river ALLIA* close to Rome. most
important temple where some of the bravest roman took refuge. others scattered throughout
the neighbourhood. then tried to conquer the capital.
- livy, LR 14. famous story known: whats the main content? there was a roman named Marcus
who woken by found of geese (sacred to goddess) flaping their wings… noticed gauls climbing
up the hill middle of the night and rushed to them and pushed them down again saving the
- there also is a different story where schoalrs only made 50 years ago looked through roman
writings from later times. detecting a great embarassment… because romans knew another
story where all the capital were red and the gauls took it* (but of course romans took the
- archaelogical evidence of archaelogical castatrophe for gauls? no one found anything for it.
because for ROme, it doenst exist.
- conquest of Latium*
- treaty for early 400s. LR 21
- another treaty 358 but then its over… no more treaties because we had 340-38 the Latium War*
- dissolution of latin leauge (allies of rome) and rome took over, incorporate them into the roman
state LR 22
- dealt with different towns in different ways. many different towns were metnioned and
condiitons are always different. ex. full citizneship, full restoration of their religion.
- faomus roman strategy of buildling up power*
- important strategy (overall plan) for how to build up power when you are little in numbers.
(because there are more latin towns vs. rome)
- manage to conquer through this revolt and now they had to deal with them. when talking about