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Chapter 23

Chapter 23 Modernizing Korea and Colonial Rule.docx

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East Asian Studies
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Chapter23ModernizingKoreaandColonialRule(1896-1945) Attempts at Reform (1896-1910) - Competition between Japan and Russia gave Koreans the opportunity to promote reforms, nationalism, and modern modes of social interaction Russia’s Interests - Russia and Japan signed two agreements that granted Russia equal rights with Japan to station legation guards and grant loans to the Korean government  They almost divided Korea into two spheres of influence - Korean also signed a secret agreement in which Russia promised to protect King Kojong and provide military and financial aid, since he escaped from Japanese control - King Kojong began to lease rights to exploitation of natural resources - After he returned to his palace in 1879, he changed the title of kingdom to “The Great Empire of Korea” and adopted the title of emperor to put himself on par with Chinese, Russian, and Japanese rulers Nationalist Movements - First national movements: as Korean struggled to find a national identity fir for the modern age - The new Independence Club demanded the dismissal of corrupt officials and strove to educate people on the need to modernize the country - Although the club was banned after 2 years, in inspired elite women to debate sexual equality and education for women in the context of Korean nationalism - Weaned from their addiction to Chinese culture, scholars studied Korean language, history and literature - A new Korea founded on principles of social equality, equality of men and women, and replacement of superstition with rationality The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) - Conflicts led Japan entered into an alliance with Great Britain - Prevented Germany and France from supporting Russia in a repetition of the Triple Intervention of 1895 - Opened war by Japan against Russia alone February 1904 - Japan established a protectorate over Korea - Ito’s vision was to maintain an “independent” Korean government that would willingly carry out institutional reforms under Japanese guidance he used Japanese police and regular army units to maintain order while Emperor Kojong was left on the throne - Emperor Kojong secretly sent messages to head of European states for help in gaining independence, but Japan outmaneuvered it. - Finally, Ito annexed Korean and assassinated by Korean patriot Japanese Colonial Rule (1910-1945) - 3 phases of Japan’s colonial rule 1. Japan created a police state Government-General (GG) of Chosen  Eliminated all Korean political participation, restricted Korean business activity, and invested heavily in the promotion of rice cultivation for export to Japan  March First Movement: 33 patriots signed a Declaration of Independence and marched peacefully to the Japanese authorities to petition for liberation forced Japan to change its policy 2. Shifted to “cultural government” policy  Allowed a certain degree of freedom of speech and association and permitted the establishment of Korean businesses 3. Japan invested huge amounts of capital in heavy industry and infrastructure in Korean in support of Japan’s wars  Severely repressed freedom  Instituted military conscription, forced labor, and Korean assimilation to Japan
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