Despite absence of epileptogenic activity, he received a bilateral medial temporal. Cognitive neuroscience cognition: variety of higher mental processes (thinking, perceiving, imagining, speaking, acting, planning, etc. ) This stopped his seizures, but made it so he was unable to form new long-term memories. This is a selective memory deficit, not a perceptual/intellectual problem. He has normal short term memory, but anterograde amnesia (can"t remember anything past surgery) Hm does a tracing task: draw a star while only looking at your hand in a mirror. Even though he cannot make new memories, each day he does it, he gradually improves. Procedural/muscle memory is separate from memories of events in the past. Eeg measures brainwaves fmri study activity in physical brain (topographic) in millimeter resolution. Localization parts of the brain are specific to certain functions. Brain contains cooling fluid so it doesn"t overheat. Pineal gland is where mind and body interact.