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Canada (158,372)
Geography (186)
GGR124H1 (11)
Chapter 1-3


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University of Toronto St. George
Damian Dupuy

Chapter 1 Fundamentals of cities Urban dynamics -complexity stems from the presence of a relatively stable structure upon which interchangeable elements can be affixed -infrastructure networks connect buildings and land uses -the 7 properties that account for the existence of cities and their diverse configurations: production, proximity, reproduction, capitalization, place, governance, environment Production -refers to the need for cities to produce goods and services for their own residents -rural communities are traditionally self-reliant, historically cities are unable to satisfy all its consumption requirements -cities must export to generate revenues in order to buy products from outside their territory -the existence of a city depends on it being able to export sufficient goods/services to counterbalance its imports -cities that fail to export decline and turn into ghost-towns -goods/resources drawn from outside a city’s territory increasingly originating from foreign countries and continents in the era of globalization -at the same time, growing emphasis on local sustainability with increasing energy costs and growing environmental awareness -today: decline of manufacture, rise of service sector because of deindustrialization, developed countries must rely on innovation and knowledge-intensive activities to compete -urban centers today: explosion of restaurants, personal services, entertainment and cultural activities Proximity -facilitates communication and minimizes the cost of interaction -people choose to live in cities because of their need for frequent and repeated interaction outside of the home -businesses and institutions are close to their market and labor force -innovation is a by-product of interaction, cities often catalysts of change, cities promote/welcomes spontaneous interactions, unlike suburbs -cities are “comprised of numerous overlapping markets of frequently repeated exchanges”, i.e. transportation systems connect residences to work, enterprises, retail facilities, etc., connects public services to clients -often this results in high cost of land, appeal of proximity raises demand for space, this in turn elevates land values -urban space is very limited in comparison to rural space Reproduction -reproduction refers to the continued provision of a qualified labor force (birth), also in association with conditions needed for such labor force e.g. health care, education, household consumption -origin of city planning can be traced back to ensure the citizens’productivity by alleviating adverse health effects (e.g. pollution, disease) that impedes it -Canada’s low birth rate means immigration is central to the reproductory property of the city -Reproduction-related urban sites include: schools, homes, hospitals, water management systems -Reproduction-related consumption important for production sector Capitalization -urban land is scarce, so it becomes the object of substantial capital investment so its uses can be maximized -capitalization refers to the vast amount of resources invested to accommodate agglomerations of residents, businesses and services -cities often shaped by the technology available at the time -once capitalized and populated, urban centers becomes a factor of path dependence (favoring perpetuation of existing patterns) -significant change demands adjustment of build environment, a city is not easily retrofitted -Fun fact: wombats poop in cubes -financial restraints, habitual behavior and citizen resistance due to emotional attachment all contribute to path dependence -limited space and slow development process  vigorous demand and lagging supply  escalating property prices Place -consistent with a shift in economic priority as an agglomeration of services, culture and entertainment -refers to topophilia=personal identity with/love for a place, subjective attachment to a place -concern of car-oriented cities lead to detachment from surroundings, which leads to deterioration of quality of individual and collective life -Celebration of strong urban features is what distinguishes the postmodern city from the modern city -in the suburbs, place attachment is mostly associated with the home and neighborhood, whereas in the city, place attachment is much larger in scale -today: marketing of place increasingly a goal of municipal land-use policies, “good” neighborhoods vs. “bad” neighborhoods, also a device used to attract global interest and bring outside investment Governance -administrative structures and political processes aimed at generating policies suited to specific circumstances confronting cities -proximity requires collective control and cooperation, infrastructure and services are shared -legal measures to ensure order and address problems, e.g. property rights, sewage management, developmental planning -“pure laissez-faire not suitable for the city” -as cities grow in size, it requires more infrastructure, reliance on mechanized transportation (e.g. automobiles, subway) increases, administrations respond by becoming more and more complex -municipalities today face huge budget cuts and increasing responsibilities, mostly rely on tax revenues and allocations of $ from federal government to spend on infrastructural projects Environment -necessary for cities to respect their environment if they were to survive in the long term -cities today ignore the problem by exporting their waste, e.g. Toronto ships their garbage to Michigan -Cities are major contributors to global warming and have an ecological footprint exceeding their build area -Fun fact: yawning is not contagious in turtles Chapter 2 Epochs of Canadian Urban Development 1) Mercantile era, 1600-1800, colonial government and resource extraction 2) Agricultural settlements, 1800-1850, first wave of export-oriented agricultural production 3) Great Transitions, 1850-1945, expansion of manufacture 4) Post-WWII Fordist and Keynesian economic boom, growth of industrial/service sector and increasing government intervention 5) 1975-now, de-industrialization and growing reliance of service and less government intervention 1) Mercantile Era -Colonial economy aimed to provision of goods to home country (furs) -politics implemented by home country in major decisions -population remained small, growth small, settlements mostly along rivers and sea coasts -Staples Theory to explain early Canadian development: furs are valuable and a low-volume commodity, limited shipping capacity and thus limited room for immigrants on ship -urban form at the time mostly grid iron road plans, different from the road layouts of European cities 2) Agricultural Settlements -increasing immigration, from Irish famine and side effect of enclosure in Scottish Highlands -lumber became a dominant exportcut down treesmore land for agriculture -lumber=low value, bulky commodity that requires more ship space and labor, more room on returning ships from Europe for immigrants -increasing grain export to Europe -growing population and wealth means markets and service centers developed to serve the rural population i.e. first urban centers 3) Great Transitions -development of railway network propelled expansion of staples economy into the prairies and for formation of an industrial heartland -international demand for grain + determination to prevent US encroachment onto Canadian territory= Confederation, political and economic unity, pool resources together to pool resources necessary to build transcontinental rail lines -Canada slow to industrialize in comparison to US -Quebec city-Windsor corridor became known as the heartland of Canada because of its rapid economic and demographic growth -large regional economic difference between the hinterland and industrialized heartland -Staples theory (mentioned earlier from Chapter 1 notes) no longer effective at explaining the geographic development in central Canada -1941: Canada’s population was 11 000 000+ -the cities of this era consisted of: the central business district (CBD), zone of transition with mixed and changing land-use patterns, factory belts along waterways and rail ways, high density residential neighborhoods -buildings closely packed, distance between home, work and retail needs was short -transit mostly linear e.g. fixed-line rail services, grew out from the CBD 4) Post-WWII -First social programs were launched during the Great Depression -adoption of family and consumerist values by Canadian households, simultaneous baby boom and extended period of consumer goods accumulation -prosperity over this period propelled by concurrent productivity improvements and robust consumer demand -“Fordist”: 1) assembly line production and 2) payment of salaries to blue-collar workers that were high enough to allow them to purchase the goods they produced -Keynesian-themed government policies implemented at this time: redistribution programs, public expenditures, etc. -demographic and economic growth in the heartlands exceeded the nation’s as a whole -urban development both outcome and contributor to economic conditions at the time -the new suburbs: widespread homeownership and increased indoor and outdoor space for families -this “modern” life style was conformist, centered on consumerism and the nuclear family -rising middle class and homeownership meant unprecedented demand for mass goods e.g. furniture -low-density environment rendered car ownership a necessity, higher accessibility meant more land consumption -government directly intervened in urban development: roads and education facilities, standardization of main suburban features, etc. -suburbs soon became a host of a wide range of functions i.e. regional malls and retail establishments -regional malls and retail establishments often located on points of high accessibility, often along major expressway interchanges -linkage from suburbs to the outside=limited high capacity expressways and arterial roads -low density of population + dispersion of activities = damaging to public transit -dramatic fall in the CBD’s share of metropolitan sales once regional malls were established -exodus to suburbs led to decline of inner city housing’s socio-economic status, deterioration of an aging family stock -perceived decline in older housing was a major incentive for urban renewal, i.e. demolishing existing structures to make way for public housing -“blight of inner city” more characteristic ofAmerican rather than Canadian cities: in Canada there was an influx of immigration to city centers, balancing out the growth of suburbs -1945-1975: downtown redevelopment encouraged by massive public sector investment in road widening and public transit -increased office development meant more office towers built in d
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