HPS202 Textbook Reading - Cross and Szostak Ch 14

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History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
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HPS202 Cross and Szostak ch14 New Factory advances in machine tools • •Frederick Taylor - scientific management, if science leading to efficiency of machines applied to workers = productive •Henry Ford assembly line • greater productivity, cheaper goods, higher wages and more leisure • interchangeable parts depending on accuracy of machine and precision of machine makers • machine makers in 19ce limited by poor quality and high price of steel so machines usually iron or wood, as late 19ce steel price fall, steel hardened and focus on overcoming imperfections • grinding machinery improved markedly, James Watt precision of width of coin -> 1990s machinists tolerances of thousandth of inch • 1895 niagara power station -> economic prod of silicon carbide in electric furnaces, hardest before diamond, replace natural materials in grinding machinery and encourage dev • alloy steels revolutionizing steel cutting, later redesign machines completely, new cutting tools • automatic high speed grinder of 1920s inc labor productivity, invaluable to industries • steam engine and railroad focus -> automatic industry after 1890s • internal combustion engines and other car parts require greater precision than steam power • when machine shop owners hesitant to replace entire capital stock with new machines, automakers key users and sources of improvement • American machine tool industry deviated from British practices by mid19CE, encouraged by size of market, machine tool manu dev special purpose machines for needs to particular industries • specialized machine production • electrification enhance efficiency of industrial machinery... central steam engine would be cumbersome system, machines powered individually Scientific Management • Charles Baggage mechanical calculating devices, attempt to calc time workers perform tasks • popularized by Frederick Taylor • growth in size of industrial firms encourage employers to systemize operations, gradual replacement of skilled artisans by unskilled machine minders make possible increased managerial authority • inc union activity and work stoppages encourage to adopt new methods to reduce claims of worker • attempt to wrest control of pace and methods of work from skilled machinists HPS202 Cross and Szostak ch14 • increased productivity societal ideal as incomes increase, replace older fears that changes in work practices benefit only employers Taylor exposed to disordered nature of firms of time, power abuse, workers • independent, difficulty in getting them to work harder, laziness from peer pressure and natural inclination... wasted labor time •believe inc efficiency by breaking up group menatlity of workers and encouraging individual achievement with financial incentives •though oppose managers cutting piece rates as work speeds inc, recognize eliminate orkers incentive to inc productivity and create mistrust btwn managers and workers better cost accounting, invenetory mgt, centralized planning... • •principle that science applied to management, rational custom, one best way of performing job, ignore experiences of laborers •increased work standard to separate competent from failures reform of middle management, functional foremen replace general foremen, • increase authority of factory manager •stopwatch and time study, how much work reasonably performed, scientific base for piece rate settings piece rate system divide workers to younger/financially motivated vs older/less • driven (compensation difference for amount of work done) • similar to driving methods, in practice few employers willing to pay for complex layer of bureaucracy managers usually antagonistic to reforms threatening positions so usually lose • contract before time studies Gilbreths and Motion Study • limited impact of Taylor’s specific program but inspire scientific management methods and focusing on measurement and improvement of work methods rather than est piece rates motion study, analysis of body movements required for simple tasks to decrease • fatigue and inc productivity by finding optimum movements + body’s capacity o work adjusted to it, realization that money alone not sufficient to inc human output • Gilbreth dev adjustable table for bricks to be raised to appropriate levels and inc productivity • application of motion picture camera to motion studies, greater details, slow motion techniques, adopted to industry and sporting world • cyclegraphic analysis with lights at head and hands of machine operators and taking time-lapse photos • costs restrict most motion study to physical observation • general principles to reduce fa
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