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Chapter 1

HMB265H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Heredity, Selective Breeding, Pisum

Human Biology
Course Code
Maria Papaconstantinou

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Genetics Chapter 1
Review of DNA
Made of bases that complementary pair with each other: A and T, C and G
Gene: specific segment of DNA in a discrete region of the chromosome that
serves as a unit of function by encoding a particular RNA
Chromosomes: structures that package, manage the storage, duplication,
expression and evolution of DNA
Genome: the entire collection of chromosomes in each cell of an organism
Review of Proteins
Proteins: large polymers composed of hundreds of thousands of amino acid
subunits strung together in long chains
oEach chain folds into specific 3-D conformations dictated by the sequence
of amino acids
o20 different amino acids; the information in the DNA dictates, via genetic
code, the order of the amino acids
Metabolism: chemical and physical reactions that carry out conversion of foreign
material into a body part
Complex Systems and Molecular Interactions
Biological systems: complex, interactive networks; functions both within individual
cells and among groups of cells in an organism
All living forms are descended from a common ancestor and therefore are closely
related at the molecular level
The modular construction of genomes has allowed rapid evolution of biological
Modern genetic technology permits detailed analysis and dissection of biological
Application of modern technology to human genetics shows great promise for
prediction, prevention and treatment of disease
Central Dogma of molecular biology: flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein
Historical Puzzle of Inheritance
Artificial selection: purposeful control over mating by choice of parents
oE.g., dogs, plants, etc.
Desirable traits disappear and then reappear
Previous misconceptions of heredity:
oOne parent contributes most to an offspring's inherited features
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