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Chapter 12: The Changing Character of War
Basil Liddell Hart ! if you want peace, understand war
Marxist Leon Trotsky ! you may not be interested in war, but war is
interested in you
About 14,400 wars have occurred
Since the cold war the number of wars, number of battle deaths and
number of war-related massacres have declined sharply (relative to Cold
War period)
SIDE BOX
! North Atlantic region security community: group of states for whom
war is no longer a means to end disputes b/w each other thought they
may continue to wage wars against nations outside community
! All democracies (ok to fight just not if its another democracy)
! Democratic peace:
Pressures on national economies and societies
! Impact of globalization or post-modernity
! Lead to changes in the perception of threats
" Influenced beliefs
" Force as an instrument of policy
" Forms and functions of war
" Different types of problems ! terrorism [use of illegitimate
violence by sub-states groups to inspire fear, by attacking
civilians and/or symbolic targets], insurgencies
Evolution in the structure of IR
! Changes in the international system [a set of interrelated parts
connected to form a whole] uncommon
! Temporarily subject to hegemonic control of a single state
! Americanization
Carl von Clausewitz ! the form of war may change but the essential
nature of it doesnt
Non-state actors: in post-cold war period so now war is on more fronts
! Battle space: the era of aircraft and satellites, the traditional
battlefield has given way to the 3-d battle space
! Satellites
Tangible capacity for war has also developed
! Weapons of mass destruction
! Surplus weaponry floods global market
DEFINTIONS
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! Quincy Wright ! a violent contract of distinct but similar entities
! Not sufficient
! Global human insecurity
! An act of force intended to compel our opponents to fulfill our will & a
continuation of political intercourse with a mixture of other means
! Websters dictionary:
! A state of usually open and declared armed hostile conflict b/w
states or nations
! Cant be assumed anymore b/c non-state groups have become
prominent actors in contemporary warfare
! War is simply any form of armed violence b/w groups of people, but its
valid to ask what sorts of goals are involved and how much violence is
required
! 1992 Falklands/Malvinas War
! Barely qualifies w/ definition that war is at least a 1,000 battle
deaths/year
! But applies with Quincy Wrights definition
THE NATURE OF WAR
! War is organized form of organized human violence
! Easy to recognize when considering state use of personnel, military
and firepower
! But what about small-scale ! terrorism?
! All involve violence but violence doesnt always involve war
! Western understanding of war ! means to an end
! Not random violence
! Clausewitz ! a form of social and political behavior
! Globalization has eroded economic, political and cultural autonomy of
states
! Media has a powerful influence in providing framework
! ‘War fatigue
! Paradox
! ‘Made up of acts of enmity rather than cooperation, of imposition rather
than negotiation, of summary killing rather than due process, of
destruction rather than creation’
! Army is permanent organization for the destruction of life and property
! In another sense it is clearly a profoundly social activity
! `’Military dimension of society
" Requires a society to cooperate in performing complex tasks on a large
scale
" A state at war is also a state at peace
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Document Summary

north atlantic region security community: group of states for whom war is no longer a means to end disputes b/w each other thought they may continue to wage wars against nations outside community. all democracies (ok to fight just not if its another democracy) democratic peace: pressures on national economies and societies. lead to changes in the perception of threats. different types of problems terrorism [use of illegitimate violence by sub-states groups to inspire fear, by attacking civilians and/or symbolic targets], insurgencies: evolution in the structure of ir. changes in the international system [a set of interrelated parts connected to form a whole] uncommon. temporarily subject to hegemonic control of a single state. americanization: carl von clausewitz the form of war may change but the essential nature of it doesn"t, non-state actors: in post-cold war period so now war is on more fronts.

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