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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL208Y1
Professor
John Haines

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IDENTIFICATIONS
Complex terrorism:
Homer-Dixon warns us that modern capitalist states leave a lot of room for terrorists to attack
oPower lines/transfer substations
oCommunications infrastructures
Concentration of resources for economies of scale
The right attack point inability for states to respond
Democratic peace: Kant s claim that liberal states are pacific in their international relations was revived in the
80’s by Michael Doyle who argues that liberal states have created aseparate peace”. Kant explained this
phenomenon because if the decision was taken by the people and not the prince, then the frequency of conflicts
would be greatly reduced. Another explanation is that liberal states tent to be wealth and have less to gain and
more to lose by engaging in conflicts than poorer authoritarian states. Empirical evidence shows that war between
US and Canada is unthinkable. However, there have also been instances where non liberal states have friendly
relations (Cuba and Mexico). This argument has its flaws and the political consequence of this hypothesis bears
the question- how should liberal states conduct relations with non liberal states? There is an assumption that with
the prevalence of democratic states, war will decline, but there is a danger that some wars will occur as
democracies attempt to overthrow non democratic regimes to spread thedemocratic zone of of peace”. Free
trade as a core idea of liberalism brought about the idea that there was mutual gains between all player
irrespective of the nature of their economies and thus peace will be maintained. But this idea of harmony of
interests came into question when the conflict between Britain and Germany, two highly interdependent
economies post WWI brought about the end 3 empires. This has shifted liberal thinking towards a recognition that
peace is not a natural condition but one which must be constructed
Norm entrepreneurs: Constructivists believe that norms are evolved through political process. Norm
entrepreneurs play a key role in the first stage of the lifecycle of norms by Finnemore and Sikkink. In the norm
emergence stage, norm entrepreneurs attempt to convince a critical mass of states...to embrace new norms.
Norm entrepreneurs call attention to issues or evencreateissues by using language that names, interpret, and
dramatizes them. Norm entrepreneurs attempt to establish frames that resonate with broader public
understandings and are adopted as new ways of talking about and understanding issues. Norm entrepreneurs
need a launching pad to promote their norms and will frequently work from NGOS and with international
organizations and states. Once the norm is institutionalized, it has reached the critical threshold or tipping point.
The political consequence of this is that norms eventually become internalized by states sue to peer pressure and
automatically honored (i.e few people discuss whether women should vote, whether slavery is useful, or whether
medical personel should be granted immunity during war). Norms bring about changes. (168)
Carl Von Clausewitz: an influential 19th century strategist who argued that the fundamental nature of war is
immutable. The novel characteristics of war were not the result of new inventions, but new ideas and social
conditions. An example of this is that in an era of unprecendented communications technologies, cyberspace and
global media have become crucial battle grounds and terrorist operations for non state actors, so that war is now
fought on a number of different planes simultaneously. This shows that the processes of globalization in the
international system characterized by on going change is also marked by changes in the forms of warfare being
waged in the system. Clausewitz also makes a distinction between the nature and character of war as he refers to
nature as the constant, universal waulities that ultimately define war (violence, chance, uncertainty) and character
as the impermanent, circumstantial and adaptive features of war depending on time in history. He also
distinguishes between the objective and subjective nature of war, the former comprising of the elements common
to all wars and the latter consisting of those feature that make each war unique (216)
Geneva Conventions: The Geneva Conventions consist of four treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that
set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. Conventions made in 1949 that follow the just in
bello principle that refers explicitly to civilians and to what is owed to them in terms of harm minimization. These
www.notesolution.com
conventions are committed to prevent unnecessary harm and are chiefly concerned with the treatment of non
combatants and POWs. The adoption of the first convention followed the foundation of the International
Committee of the Red Cross in 1863. They are the most important international instruments to defend human
dignity during international conflicts and civil wars.
Conflict versus War: In political terms, "conflict" can refer to revolutions or other struggles, which may involve
the use of force as in the term armed conflict. War on the other hand is reciprocated armed conflict between
political units aimed at a desired political end-state. Many NGOs and independent groups attempt to monitor the
situation of ongoing conflicts. Unfortunately, the definitions of war, conflict, armed struggle, revolution and all
these words which describe violent opposition between States or armed organized groups, are not precise
enough to distinguish one from another. For example, the word terrorism is used indifferently by many
governments to delegitimate every kind of armed revolt and, at the same time, by many rebel groups to
delegitimate the armed repression of sovereign governments.
Michael Walzer: A political philosopher who argued during the decolonization era that states were conditional
entities in their own right to exist should be dependednt on criterion of performance with regard to the interests of
their citizens (leading proponent of the Communitarian position in political theory). His man contributions include
the revitalization of ‘just war theory, and the theory of complex equality’.
Just ad Bellum: One part of the Just War Tradition which is a set of guidelines for determining and judging
whether and when a state may have recourse to war and how it may fight war. Just ad bellum refers to the
occasion of going to war. Generally associated with pluralism or what Michael Walzer calls the legalist tradition.
Acceptable justifications are the defense of individual state sovereignty and the defence of a society of the states
itself (202)
Just cause: this usually means self defence or defence of a third party
Right authority: only states can wage a legitimate war. Criminals, corporations, and individuals are
illegitimate.
Right intention: the state leader must be attempting to address an injustice or an aggression, rather than
seeking glory, expansion, or loot
Last resort: the leaders must have exhausted all other reasonable avenues of resolution or have no
choice because of imminent attack
Reasonable hope of success: states should not begins wars they cannot reasonably expect to win
Restoration of peace: it is just to wage war if the purpose is to restore the peace or return the situation
back to status quo
Proportionality of means and ends: the means of war, including the war itself, must be proportionate to
the ends being sought
Example: Chapter 7 of the UN Charter restricts the legitimate use of force to two areas: international peace-
enforcement actions authorized by the security council and, individual or collective self defense in response to an
armed attack.
MAD: mutually assured destruction is a condition in which both superpowers possessed the capacity to destroy
their adversary even after being attacked first with nuclear powers. MAD, a doctrine of military strategy in which a
full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the
attacker and the defender. It is based on the theory of deterrence according to which the deployment of strong
weapons is essential to threaten the enemy in order to prevent the use of the very same weapons. The strategy is
effectively a form of Nash equilibrium, in which both sides are attempting to avoid their worst possible outcome
nuclear annihilation.
Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty: Due to the continued growth of nuclear arsenal and nuclear weapon states
(Britain, France, and China), growing concern at the spread of proliferation of nuclear weapons led to the
negotiation of the NPT in 1968. States that had nuclear weapons committed themselves to halt the arms race,
while those who did not promised not to develop them. The treaty consists of three pillars- non proliferation,
disarmament, and peaceful use. Non proliferation- 5 nuclear weapon states agreed not to transfer nuclear
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weapons or other nuclear explosive devices and not in any way assist, encourage, or induce a non nuclear
weapon state to acquire nuclear weapons. However, the US had nuclear warheads targeted at NK from 1959-
1991. Disarmament- signatories must ease international tension and strengthen international trust so as to create
someday the conditions for a halt to production of nuclear weapons. However, in order for disarmament to
succeed, non proliferation must prevail; failure to resolve proliferation threats in Iran and NK will cripple prospects
for disarmament. No current nuclear weapons state would consider eliminating its last nuclear weapons without
high confidence that other countries would not acquire them. The third pillar, peaceful use of nuclear energy
agrees upon the transfer of nuclear technology and materials to NPT signatory counties for the development of
civilian nuclear energy programs in those countries as long as it is not being used for the development of nuclear
weapons. Iran, Iraq and NK have been non compliant in this aspect and NK has dropped out.
SALT 1 and 2: The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding
international treaties between the Soviet Union and the United States—the Cold War superpowers—on the issue
of armament control. There were two rounds of talks and agreements. SALT I froze the of strategic ballistic
missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile
(SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM
launchers had been dismantled. The result of this treaty was improved relations between USA and Soviet Union.
SALT II was a controversial experiment of negotiations between Richard Nixon and Brezhnev from 1972 to 1979
which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. It was the first nuclear arms treaty which
assumed real reductions in strategic forces to 2250 of all categories of delivery on both sides. The treaty was
never formally ratified by USA after SU deployed troops in Afghanistan and Cuba; USA withdrew from treaty in
1989 (thought honored till then) after accusing Soviets of violating the pact
“Terrorism is rational”:
Terrorists’ demands areunreasonable
Rationality refers only to strategy, not goals
Suicide bombers arenuts” or deluded
Willingness to sacrifice one’s self for a cause is a general phenomenon
Attacks are random and, therefore, are not “strategic”
If object is to induce fear, then randomization can be a strategy
Asymmetrical warfare: type of warfare that exists when two combatants are so different in their characters and
in their areas of comparative strategic advantage that a confrontation between them comes to turn one side’s
ability to force the other side to fight on their own terms…the strategies that the weak have consistently adopted
against the strong often involve targeting enemy’s domestic political base as much as his forward military
capabilities. Essentially such strategies involve inflicting pain over the time without suffering unbearable retaliation
in return. Iraq war as an example (218) (Unconventional warfare)
Human Security: origins of concept can be traced to Human Development Report of 1994 issued by UNDP.
Human security includes seven areas: economic, food, health, environmental, personal, community, and political
security. The term was established by developmental economists (Ul-Haq) who opposed the orthodox notion of
development, which viewed HS and a function of economic growth. They proposed instead a concept of human
development which focuses on building human capabilities to overcome poverty, illiteracy, diseases,
discrimination, restrictions on pol freedoms. The move towards human security was advanced by the work of
international commissions such as the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. There
are two concepts of HS- freedom from want and freedom from fear (495). Debates about this concept are
concerned with the broadness to be a meaningful tool of policy makings. It may also cause more harm than good
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Description
IDENTIFICATIONS Complex terrorism: Homer-Dixon warns us that modern capitalist states leave a lot of room for terrorists to attack o Power linestransfer substations o Communications infrastructures Concentration of resources for economies of scale The right attack point inability for states to respond Democratic peace: Kant s claim that liberal states are pacific in their international relations was revived in the 80s by Michael Doyle who argues that liberal states have created a separate peace. Kant explained this phenomenon because if the decision was taken by the people and not the prince, then the frequency of conflicts would be greatly reduced. Another explanation is that liberal states tent to be wealth and have less to gain and more to lose by engaging in conflicts than poorer authoritarian states. Empirical evidence shows that war between US and Canada is unthinkable. However, there have also been instances where non liberal states have friendly relations (Cuba and Mexico). This argument has its flaws and the political consequence of this hypothesis bears the question- how should liberal states conduct relations with non liberal states? There is an assumption that with the prevalence of democratic states, war will decline, but there is a danger that some wars will occur as democracies attempt to overthrow non democratic regimes to spread the democratic zone of of peace. Free trade as a core idea of liberalism brought about the idea that there was mutual gains between all player irrespective of the nature of their economies and thus peace will be maintained. But this idea of harmony of interests came into question when the conflict between Britain and Germany, two highly interdependent economies post WWI brought about the end 3 empires. This has shifted liberal thinking towards a recognition that peace is not a natural condition but one which must be constructed Norm entrepreneurs: Constructivists believe that norms are evolved through political process. Norm entrepreneurs play a key role in the first stage of the lifecycle of norms by Finnemore and Sikkink. In the norm emergence stage, norm entrepreneurs attempt to convince a critical mass of states...to embrace new norms. Norm entrepreneurs call attention to issues or even create issues by using language that names, interpret, and dramatizes them. Norm entrepreneurs attempt to establish frames that resonate with broader public understandings and are adopted as new ways of talking about and understanding issues. Norm entrepreneurs need a launching pad to promote their norms and will frequently work from NGOS and with international organizations and states. Once the norm is institutionalized, it has reached the critical threshold or tipping point. The political consequence of this is that norms eventually become internalized by states sue to peer pressure and automatically honored (i.e few people discuss whether women should vote, whether slavery is useful, or whether medical personel should be granted immunity during war). Norms bring about changes. (168) Carl Von Clausewitz: an influential 19 century strategist who argued that the fundamental nature of war is immutable. The novel characteristics of war were not the result of new inventions, but new ideas and social conditions. An example of this is that in an era of unprecendented communications technologies, cyberspace and global media have become crucial battle grounds and terrorist operations for non state actors, so that war is now fought on a number of different planes simultaneously. This shows that the processes of globalization in the international system characterized by on going change is also marked by changes in the forms of warfare being waged in the system. Clausewitz also makes a distinction between the nature and character of war as he refers to nature as the constant, universal waulities that ultimately define war (violence, chance, uncertainty) and character as the impermanent, circumstantial and adaptive features of war depending on time in history. He also distinguishes between the objective and subjective nature of war, the former comprising of the elements common to all wars and the latter consisting of those feature that make each war unique (216) Geneva Conventions: The Geneva Conventions consist of four treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns.Conventions made in 1949 that follow the just in bello principle that refers explicitly to civilians and to what is owed to them in terms of harm minimization. These www.notesolution.com
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