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Chapter 22

Chapter 22 Notes

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Political Science
John Haines

Chapter 22: Nuclear Proliferation • Only five states [China, France, Russia, United Kingdom and United sates] are recognized by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as possessing nukes, other have the capability to construct them • Latin America, South East Asia, Africa and Central Asia the trend has been to develop the region as a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone (NWFZ) • South Asia –trend towards a higher profile for nuclear capabilities What is the impact of nuclearization in some region will have on those moving towards denuclearization • Chernobyl fire in USSR in 1986 – devastating effects of accidents at operating nuclear power plants • Hiroshima and Nagasaki • USSR – only example of nuclear weapon state (NWS) subjected to political disintegration Period of transformation, long term cooperation Co-operative Threat Reduction Program and agreements like that multilateral NPT and bilateral Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START) [us and Russia] • Thesis nuclear power should be welcomed not feared Will increase stability just as the threat of nuclear weapons did in the Cold War Criticism It is a product of they by-gone first nuclear age Is not suited to the demands of the potentially more dangerous second nuclear age Unable to alleviate the security dilemma that many states confront • Is NPT a non-proliferation measure for preventing additional nuclear armed states emerging or a means for achieving nuclear disarmament • Future global security environment Nature of nuclear weapons and their effects • Technical basis of nuclear weapons The route for any state seeking nuclear weapons would be via the acquisition of the necessary technological infrastructure Nuclear, conventional, computational and electronic techniques Individuals with key scientific skills Difference b/w reactor and weapons Reactor- controlled chain reaction www.notesolution.com Weapon- critical mass of nuclear material created as a result of an uncontrolled and rapid chain reaction Using fission Reactor has means for regulation the chain reaction, moderator and removes the heat produced • Nuclear Weapons effects UN Commission for Conventional Armaments in 1948 introduced new category of WMD to distinguish nuclear weapons from conventional forms • CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) has appeared • Nuclear weapon produces energy in three forms Blast Heat/thermal radiation Nuclear radiation Newly discovered: Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) Acute disruption to electronic equipment • Extensive damage to humans Diffusion of nuclear and missile technology • Diffusion of nuclear technology Immediately after WWII only US possessed capability to manufacture nuclear weapons 1964- four more nations crossed threshold Soviet Union – 1949 United Kingdom – 1952 France- 1960 China – 1964 India and Pakistan were not part of the treaty but in 1998 both obtained them Not in break of any int’l legal obligation Questions for future security Suppliers, coupled with the possibility that transnational network operating outside established controls may exist Acquisition is easier UN – SC resolution 1540 (a) Mandatory to pass and enforce domestic legislation that criminalizes those individual or networks engaged in transnational WMD-related activities • Nuclear delivery www.notesolution.com In 1950s needed large aircrafts designed to carry these weapons to targets Now more compact to be carried by missiles Ballistic missiles consequently represent most sophisticated method of nuclear delivery and were once restricted to a few states Now more commonplace US congress passed the National Missile Defense (NMD) Act in 1999 Us should develop the technical means to counter a possible small- scale ballistics missile attack on US mainland Costs and feasibility main topic of discussion Requires early warning and computational capabilities Reactions from Russia, China and Europe Withdrew from the ABM treaty New agreement with Russia Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT) Japan and Israel also developed missile defense programs START 1 expires 2009, and SORT in 2012 Theorizing nuclear proliferation and non-proliferation • Conceptual Issues Realism in an anarchic international environment states will seek nuclear weapons to enhance their security Norms, taboos and epistemic communities have played huge role in nuclear context Int’l norms significant as constraints and standards Role played by cultural and identity factors NGO’s and Epistemic – groups from different discipline and countries which operate as conduits for ideas on non-proliferation 1945- debate on what is considered ‘non-use’ of nuclear arms Deterred by fear of retaliation Nature of the weapon and the impact it has on normative judgments • Nuclear motivations Focused on the state and inter-state levels Much of post-WWII Pattern was assumed to be consistent with future Strategic motivation –role that nuclear weapons played in the second world war and its immediate aftermath when initially there were as war-fighting or war-winning weapons Later focused on role it played on deterrence www.notesolution.com Political and prestige benefits- the most modern from of weaponry and their custodians were automatically afforded a seat at the ‘top of the table of int’l affairs’ Technological determinism Once a state developed the necessary infrastructure it would develop nuclear weapons Now more difficult to focus on just a single variable Tra
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