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Chapter 2

How East Asians View Democracy-Chapter 2: The Mass Public and Democratic Politics in South Korea

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Political Science
Lynette Ong

Ernie Tam 2011-10-19 How East Asians View Democracy-Chapter 2: The Mass Public and Democratic Politics in South Korea • Late 1980 began the political transformation from military rule to representative democracy • Transformed an entrenched system of “Crony capitalism” into a competitive and transparent market economy. Historical Background • Between 1987 and 1988, Korea accomplished a peaceful transition from military dictatorship (led by Chun Doo Hwan) to a democratic state o For three decades (1961-1987), the military ruled the country as a developmental dictatorship with a rationale of promoting economic development and strengthening national security against the communist North. • Park Chung Hee and Chun Doo Hwan were extremely dictatorial and ruled South Korean with an iron fist. • The regime controlled opposition parties and other nonpolitical civic and business organizations through a variety of tactics including intimidation etc… • The Constitution of the democratic sixth Republic, ratified in a national referendum held in October 1987 laid out a new institutional foundation to representative democracy • The establishment of democratic institutions o The constitution established the Constitutional Court and created measures to guarantee independence of judiciary, broaden civil liberties, protect political parties from being disbanded by arbitrary government action and mandate political neutrality of the military • Second and third Presidents of Sixth
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