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Chapter 4

Psychology- Chapter 4.docx

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Dan Dolderman

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Sociology 9/24/2012 11:12:00 AM
Socialization- Chapter 3
What is Socialization?
Negativism Stage- The stage that many two year olds pass through. During this
stage, the child will often be contrary and obstinate, refusing to cooperate in simple
tasks and saying ”no” to everything/everyone. The child may even break norms or
accepted ways of doing things in the household such as breaking dishes..etc.
Negativism is the way a child learns what really can or cannot be done. It is a
way of testing the limits to find out which of the many no;s they hear are serious
and which are only a preference.
The social process whereby they undergo such development through interacting
with the people around them is known as socialization.
To be socialized means to learn how to act and interact appropriately with others, to
become competent and effective member of society.
Sociologist assert that to be socialized is also to develop a self, a sense of individual
identity that allows us to understand ourselves and differentiate ourselves from
To have a self, we must interact with others; to interact competently, we must
reflect on and understand ourselves in relation to those others.
Socialization then, is a lifelong process of social interaction during which the individual acquires
a self-identity and skills needed for living in society.
Primary Socialization is the crucial learning process that occurs in childhood and makes us
members of society.
Secondary Socialization is learning that occurs after people have undergone primary
It is not only norms that regulate behavior, there are many conventions, rituals, rules and laws
that direct our behavior both with people whom we know well and with strangers.
Norms make smooth and orderly interaction possible, freeing us from the need to plan every
step we take and communicate in detail with everyone we meet about all the possible ways
we could interact.
The content of socialization differs greatly from one society to another.
A subculture is a group within the larger culture that has distinctive values, norms and
Nature and Nurture:
Instincts are inborn patterns of behavior that are often responses to specific stimuli.
Nature-biological inheritance
Nurture-the social environment
Each of us is born with a set of human potentials. Nature and nurture interact in
contributing to human development. They are both complementary and
We become human through the process of social interaction. Without the contact,
socialization is impaired, the individual is but a shell of a human being, and
irreversible damage may be done to the person‟s sense of self. Example- Children
who have been locked up …they are 7 but have the development of a 2 year old.
Socialization is essential both the physical well-being and to the social competence
of an infant. It is through interaction that such a sense of self emerges, and the
development of the self is a crucial part of socialization.
Socialization not only learning about others, but also developing a sense of self
Charles Horton Cooley (1902)
-Introduced the idea of the looking-glass self, suggesting that the gestures and
reactions of others are a mirror or “looking glass” in which we see ourselves.
Without the social mirror, there can be no sense of self. For Cooley, self-image
emerges as a product of involvement in groups and communication with others.
The first images of the self are received from significant others- those people such as
parents, who are of central importance to the individual in the development of the
self. The Primary Group- he small group that is characterized by intimate, face-
face association and cooperation.
Cooley suggested, the structure and content of the self are derived from society,
which is represented by the groups and significant others surrounding the
George Herbert Mead ( 1934)
-His major contribution was a theory of the relationship among mind, self and
society that became the foundation od symbolic interactionism and influenced many
sociologists who use a wide variety of perspectives. He did not assume that
socialization consists largely of learning to conform to the rest of society. Rather, he
saw socialization as an active process in which individuals play a crucial role in
their own development. He also suggested, is the ability to communicate, especially
to make use of symbolic communication. Symbols are gestures, objects or sounds
that stand for something else and whose meaning depends on shared
understandings. The use of symbols enables the child to think of itself in relation to
others and is at the core od all stages of the socialization process.
Taking the role of the other involves anticipating in advance how others will see
and react to you. It is an essential skill that children must develop to be effective
members of society. It also makes the children develop a sense of self.
Three Stages in Taking the Role of the Other: Described by Mead:
1. Imitative stage children two yrs & under do not interact effectively with others
because they cannot take the role of the other. They merely imitate the behavior
or others.
2. Game Stage children have developed a generalized impression of the behavior
people expect as well as awareness of their own importance to the group & vie
3. Play Stage- children begin to adopt the roles of significant others- a parent,
sports coach..etc & their play shifts from imitative to imaginative.