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Chapter 9

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Endorphins, Secondary Sex Characteristic, Negative Feedback

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Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 9
How does motivation activate, direct, and sustain behaviour?
Motivation area of psychological science concerned with factors that
energize/stimulate behaviour
- Motivational states are energizing
o Activates/arouses behaviour
- Motivational states are directive
o Guides behaviours towards satisfying specific goals or needs
- Motivational states help people persist in their behaviour until goals are
achieved or needs are satisfied
- Motives differ in strength, depending on internal/external factors
Multiple Factors Motivate Behaviour
- People need other people; preference to be solitary or social will vary
Need state of deficiency, can be biological (ex. food) or social (ex. company)
- Failure to satisfy particular need leads to psychosocial or physical
- Abraham Maslow proposes need theory of motivation, believing that
humans are driven by many needs arranged into a need hierarchy
Need hierarchy Maslow’s arrangement of needs in which basic survival needs
to be met before people can satisfy higher needs
- Theory lacks empirical support
- Ranking of needs not as simple
- Survival needs (ex. hunger, thirst) at base of pyramid, must be satisfied first
- Experience of personal growth, people must fulfill their biological needs,
feel safe and secure, feel loved, and have a good opinion of themselves
Humanistic psychology View people as striving towards personal fulfillment
(ex“ Maslow’s theory)
- Humanist perspective: humans are unique among animals because we
continually try to improve ourselves
Self-actualization occurs when someone achieves his/her personal dreams and
Self actualization
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- Living to full potential, achieve personal dreams/aspirations
- Good self opinion, accomplishments, reputation
Belonging and love
- Acceptance, friendship
- Security, protection, freedom from threat
- Hunger, thirst, warmth, air, sleep
- Need creates arousal, which motivates behaviour
Arousal physiological activation (ex. increased brain activity), increased
autonomic responses (ex. faster heart rate, sweating)
Drives psychological states that encourage behaviours that satisfy needs
- Biological states (ex. hunger, thirst) drive animals to maintain steadiness or
Homeostasis tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium
Ex. Think: thermostat set to an optimal set point
- Negative feedback models returning to equilibrium after a deviation
- When animal is deprived from a need (ex. water, sleep, sex), a drive
increases in proportion to the amount of deprivation
- Drive state creates arousal, encouraging you to do something to reduce
the drive (ex. midnight snack)
Habit - If behaviour consistently reduces a drive, over time
- Likelihood that a behaviour will occur is due to drive and habit
- People choose to engage in actions that don’t satisfy biological needs
(ex. all nighter)
- Drive states push us to reduce arousal but we are also pulled towards
certain things in our environment
Incentives external objects/goals, rather than internal drives that motivate
- Subliminal cues influence behaviour, even though they appear so quickly
that people can’t report what they saw
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- Pairing of positive word (ex. good) with subliminal cue (ex. exert), lead
people to squeeze a lever harder than when the cue was presented
without the positive word
Yerkes-Dodson law performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point
and then decreases with increasing arousal, graph looks like inverted U
o Students perform best with moderate anxiety for exam
o Too little anxiety can make them inattentive, unmotivated
o Too much anxiety interferes with ability to think
- Some people function better with some arousal
- Prefer to be somewhat aroused goes against idea that motivation always
lowers tension and arousal
- Motivated to seek optimal level of arousal
- Too little, we are bored, too much, we are overwhelmed
Pleasure principle drives people to seek pleasure and avoid pain
Hedonism humans’ desire for pleasantness
- Pleasure motivates behaviour; doesn’t necessarily satisfy biological needs
o Ex. eating dessert when full occurs because it is pleasurable
- Behaviours associated with pleasure often promote animals’ survival and
- Behaviours associated with pain interfere with survival and reproduction
- Sweetness usually indicates that food is safe to eat
Some behaviours are motivated for their own sake
Extrinsic motivation external goals that an activity is directed towards, such as
reducing drive or obtaining reward
Intrinsic motivation value or pleasure that is associated with an activity that
has no apparent external goal, simply enjoyable
- Playful exploration is characteristic of all mammals, especially primates
- Enjoy activities that enable us to express creativity
Creativity tendency to generate ideas or alternatives that may be useful in
solving problems, communicating and entertaining ourselves/others
- Passionate activities shape personal identity
- Basic principle of learning theory is that rewarded behaviour increases in
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