PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Sigmund Freud, Joseph Wolpe, Tabula Rasa

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PSYB45 Textbook Notes
Chapter 1: What is Applied Behaviour Analysis?
KEY TERMS
Behaviour
Learning
Unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned response
Conditioned stimulus
Conditioned response
Respondent conditioning
Operant conditioning
Reinforcement
Punishment
Antecedents
Modeling
Cognition
Applied behavior analysis
Behaviour analyst
Behavioual methods
Target behaviours
Behavioural deficit
Behavioural excess
Behaviourism
Review Questions
1. Describe the research by Greenspoon (1955) on
modifying verbal behavior and explain why its
results are important.
2. What do we mean by the term behavior? Give 2
examples each of overt and covert behaviours.
3. Why are traits, diagnoses, and outcomes of
behaviour not behaviours?
4. How is heredity involved in behavioural
development?
5. Describe the components and process of
respondent conditioning, and give an example
from your own life.
6. Define the terms reinforcement and punishment,
and give two examples of each from your own
life.
7. Define the operant conditioning term antecedent.
Give 2 examples of antecedents from your life.
8. How was reinforcement used in the case study of
reinstating speech in a schizophrenic man?
9. Describe the research and findings of Bandura
(1965) on the role of consequences on modeling.
10. Give two examples each of modeling and
cognition affecting your behavior.
11. Define behavioural methods and cognitive
methods.
12. Define the term applied behavior analysis. How
do publications in that field differ in their
coverage from behavior modification, behavior
therapy, and self-manangement?
Summary
Behaviour: anything people do in response to
internal/external events
Overt actions: observable by others
Covert activities: private not open to view
Traits: broad/stable characteristics, not
behaviors, not psychological diagnoses or
outcomes of behavior
o Becoming more physically fit
Heredity and experience affect behavioural
development
Experience affects behavior through learning
o Respondent conditioning
o Operant conditioning
o Modeling
Respondent conditioning: potential conditioned
stimulus (CS) gains ability to elicit a conditioned
response (CR) by being associated repeatedly
with an unconditioned stimulus (US) that already
elicits an unconditioned response (UR)
UR and CR: same behavior
Operant conditioning: antecedents set occasion
for behavior, which is affected by consequences
it produces
Reinforcement increases performance of a
behavior
Punishment decreases its performance
Respondent and operant conditioning occur
together
Modeling: observing other people’s behavior
Cognition: covert mental activity
o Thinking
o Reasoning
Expectations, beliefs, rules: covert antecedents
to behavior
Applied behavior analysis: uses principles of
learning (operant and respondent conditioning)
to understand and change behavior
Called behavior analysts
Aooky behavioural methods to change target
behaviours
4 defining chracteristics:
1. focus on behavior: modify behavioural
deficits/excesses
2. consider learning and environment to be
main sources by which behaviours can be
changed
3. strong scientific orientation
4. pragmatic and active approach
Part 1: Introducing Applied Behaviour Analysis
What does behavior mean?
External and Internal Behaviours
What is not behavior?
How behavior develops
How we acquire and change behavior
Respondent conditioning
Operant conditioning
Relating Respondent and operant conditioning
Modeling
Are Cognitive Processes involved?
Defining applied behavior analysis
Related Terms and fields
Characteristics of Applied Behaviour Analysis
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How behavior analysis developed
Behaviourism: Origin of behavior analysis
Emergence and growth of applied behavior
analysis
Prologue
Joel Greenspoon, 1955
“mm-hmm” when Karen said plural noun
environmental events can modify specific
behaviors substantially
interest shown in statements: nodding, eye
contact
What does behavior mean?
Behaviour: anything a person does because of
internal/external events
describe individual’s specific actions or responses
External and Internal Behaviours
External or overt
1. Verbal: actions involving language use
2. Motor: actions involving body movement
Overt behaviours: main focus of applied behavior
analysis
Ads on TV
o Produce emotions: happiness
o Physiological changes: increased HR
Covert responses
Principal reason focus on overt behaviours:
o Can be observed and measured directly
by another person
Covert behaviours
o can be observed/felt only by person
performing behavior
o must be measured indirectly
verbal/written reports
special equipment: device to
measure HR
What is not behavior?
Traits
Broad and stable characteristics
o Nice
o Considerate
o Honest
o Smart
o Creative
o Conscientious
Convenient and efficient way to communicate
information
Misleading, inconsistent and imprecise
o Don’t tell us specifically what we need to
change to improve a person’s behavior
o Can be conscientious in some ways, not
others
More precise in describing behavior to be
changed, the more successful we are likely to be
in measuring and improving the behavior
Clinical practice: use diagnoses to classify clients
o Severe depression
o Schizophrenia
o Mental retardation
o Autism
Basis of behaviours that are common to
individuals with condition
Must assess and try to improve child’s specific
behaviours
Outcomes of behavior: not behaviours
o Get higher grades
o Lose weight
Improving grades:
o Spend more time on schoolwork
o Concentrating well when doing work
Focus toward outcome often fail to identify and
deal effectively with behaviours need to change
How behavior develops
Baby inherited inborn behavior: reflexes
o Obvious survival value
Feeding
Maintain physiological functioning
Protection against injury
o Rooting reflex: turn head toward an
object that touches cheek
o Sucking reflex: suck when lips touched
with small rounded object
All other behaviors develop after birth
o Heredity
o Experience
Heredity affects behavioural development
1. Chart course of person’s
maturation/physical growth
2. Pride foundation for/tendency toward
developing behaviours of certain types
Earliest years, physical growth is fastest in head
and upper trunk of body
Speeds up later in lower trunk, arms, legs
Growth and coordination of muscle and nervous
system have same pattern
o 3 year olds can pull over sweater but not
tie shoelaces
Maturation determines when motor actions
become possible
Inheritances influences likelihood of:
o Stuttering
o Severe anxieties
o Autism
o Alcoholism
Experience: dominant factor in almost all human
behavioural development
o Occurs through learning
Concept Check 1.1
1. Ellie was a very dependable student: Trait
2. Jim laughed at the joke: Overt Behaviour
3. Devon developed strong biceps: Outcome
4. Dolores dreamed about a spider: Covert
5. Tony was a motivated employee: Trait
How we acquire and change behavior
Learning: durable change in behavioral potential
as a result of experience
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