that help them survive in their particular environments had a selective
advantage over those who did not. natural selection.
oAdaptations – the physical characteristics, skills, abilities that increase the
chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be passed along
to future generations.
•3 ASPECTS OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY (way of thinking) USED TO
UNDERSTAND MANY DIFFERENT THINGS ABOUT MIND AND
i.Solving Adaptive Problems – the idea that the body that the body
contains specialized mechanisms that have evolved to solve problems
that required adaptation.
ii.Modern Minds In Stone Age Skulls – according to evolutionary
theory, we must seek to understand the challenges that faced our early
ancestors to understand much of our current behavior, whether
adaptive or maladaptive. [ppl like sweet foods, especially those that
are high in fat highly caloric therefore eating them would have
provided substantial survival values in prehistoric times. Today may
be maladaptive because may lead to obesity]. Many current behaviors
do not reflect our evolutionary heritage – reading, driving, computers,
cell phones, TV. Rather than being adaptations, considered BY-
PRODUCTS of adaptive solutions to adaptive problems.
iii.Culture Provides Adaptive Solutions – many of most demanding
adaptive challenges involve dealing with other humans selecting
mates, cooperating in hunting and gathering, forming alliances,
competing for scarce resources, warring with neighboring groups.
Unlike many animal species, humans not able to care for themselves
at birth. Require substantial effort and resources from caregivers, who
themselves are reliant on other group members for survival. The
complexity of living in groups give rise to CULTURE (beliefs, values,
rules, norms, customs). The assumption being that the various aspects
of culture are transmitted from one generation to the next through
learning preferences for music, food, expression, smells strongly
affected by culture. Many of cultural rules reflect adaptive solutions
that have been worked out by previous generations. Although humans
have changed only modestly in physical terms (Bio) in last 2000/3000
yrs, they have changed profoundly in terms of how they live together.