PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Relative Risk, Psychopathology, Stopwatch

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Published on 16 Feb 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Research Methodology
-People form opinions and explanations as to why some act the way the do, many
of those explanations are false
-Critical thinking is a systemized scrutinizing of the evidence through scientific
method
oSkepticism
oObjective approach to questions
-Intuitions are usually founded on limited information and might be biased
oIntuitions are used to guide scientific research rather than answer its
questions
-To answer questions, scientists use objective, systematic procedures so they can
develop an accurate understanding of the phenomena they are trying to study
-Hypothesis
oTest the hypothesis (by may be setting up a study)
oExperiments in which you manipulate situation in order to see changes that
occur in the mental state or behaviour
Compare your finding with a control group
Once youre collected the data you use statistical
procedures to analyze it
What is scientific inquiry?
1. Scientific questions can be objectively answered
-Science assumes that the world works in an orderly fashion based on physical laws
-Scientific method is the objective examinations of the natural world
-Scientific inquire has four basic goals
oWhat happens (Description)
Description stare
Observations in a systematic fashion
oWhen it happens (Prediction)
When a certain behaviour. Mental process occurs
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Observation can reveal that evens happen together
So one can be used to predict the occurrence of the other
oWhat causes it to happen (Causal Control)
Causal control
Systematically varying the situation to produce a change in
behaviour or mental state
Cause-Effect relationship between variables
oWhy it happens (Explanation)
Explanation as to why something happens
-To fully understand a phenomena it is required to examine it across different levels
on analysis, which is the essence of scientific inquiry
-Scientific inquire is the study of empirical questions which can be answered by
observing and measuring the world around us
-Scientific questions are those that can be tested and either confirmed or shown to
be false
-It does not matter what the scientist think about the questions
-Answers to empirical questions should be able to be answered in a similar manner
by different researchers
-If the study is properly designed and conducted and the findings are valid, the
study needs to be able to be replicated
oReplication – repetition of an experiment to repeat the results
-By repeating and confirming scientists are able to build the principles of
psychological science
2. The Empirical process depends on theories, hypothesis and research
-Empirical process is a dynamic relationship between three elements
oTheory – a model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what
is observed and makes predictions about the future
oHypothesis – a specific prediction as to what should be observed in the
real world if the theory is correct
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Direct test of the theory
oResearch – scientific process that involves the systematic ad careful
collection of data
-Data – objective observations or measurement
oShould test the hypothesis and the theory
-Good research reflects a dynamism relationship between the three elements
a.Theories should generate hypotheses
-Good theory produces a variety of testable hypotheses
oGood theory - Jean Piagets theory of infant-child development
oBad theory – Freud’s theory that dreams represent fulfillment of wishes
Actual function of dreams cannot be scientifically studied
b. The value on unexpected findings
-Research does not always proceed in orderly fashion
-Serendipity – the unexpected stumbling on something important
oWhen some even occurs when it was not part of the original plan
-Study of cats response to dots, when slides jammed it was discovered that their
vision responds to edges and lines
Review
-Subjective beliefs are formed on limited information and can be biased
-To explain something scientists need to study it objectively, systematically using
scientific method
-The for goals of psychological science when trying to explain behavior or mental
activity is to:
oDescribe – what
oPredict – when
oControl – what causes
oExplain – why
-Empirical process based on theories
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Document Summary

People form opinions and explanations as to why some act the way the do, many of those explanations are false. Critical thinking is a systemized scrutinizing of the evidence through scientific method: skepticism, objective approach to questions. Intuitions are usually founded on limited information and might be biased: intuitions are used to guide scientific research rather than answer its questions. To answer questions, scientists use objective, systematic procedures so they can develop an accurate understanding of the phenomena they are trying to study. Hypothesis: test the hypothesis (by may be setting up a study, experiments in which you manipulate situation in order to see changes that occur in the mental state or behaviour.  compare your finding with a control group: once you"re collected the data you use statistical procedures to analyze it. What is scientific inquiry: scientific questions can be objectively answered. Science assumes that the world works in an orderly fashion based on physical laws.