Textbook Notes (378,528)
CA (167,148)
UTSG (10,973)
PSY (2,994)
PSY100H1 (1,839)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

21 Pages
85 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 21 pages of the document.
Research Methodology
-People form opinions and explanations as to why some act the way the do, many
of those explanations are false
-Critical thinking is a systemized scrutinizing of the evidence through scientific
method
oSkepticism
oObjective approach to questions
-Intuitions are usually founded on limited information and might be biased
oIntuitions are used to guide scientific research rather than answer its
questions
-To answer questions, scientists use objective, systematic procedures so they can
develop an accurate understanding of the phenomena they are trying to study
-Hypothesis
oTest the hypothesis (by may be setting up a study)
oExperiments in which you manipulate situation in order to see changes that
occur in the mental state or behaviour
Compare your finding with a control group
Once youre collected the data you use statistical
procedures to analyze it
What is scientific inquiry?
1. Scientific questions can be objectively answered
-Science assumes that the world works in an orderly fashion based on physical laws
-Scientific method is the objective examinations of the natural world
-Scientific inquire has four basic goals
oWhat happens (Description)
Description stare
Observations in a systematic fashion
oWhen it happens (Prediction)
When a certain behaviour. Mental process occurs
www.notesolution.com
Observation can reveal that evens happen together
So one can be used to predict the occurrence of the other
oWhat causes it to happen (Causal Control)
Causal control
Systematically varying the situation to produce a change in
behaviour or mental state
Cause-Effect relationship between variables
oWhy it happens (Explanation)
Explanation as to why something happens
-To fully understand a phenomena it is required to examine it across different levels
on analysis, which is the essence of scientific inquiry
-Scientific inquire is the study of empirical questions which can be answered by
observing and measuring the world around us
-Scientific questions are those that can be tested and either confirmed or shown to
be false
-It does not matter what the scientist think about the questions
-Answers to empirical questions should be able to be answered in a similar manner
by different researchers
-If the study is properly designed and conducted and the findings are valid, the
study needs to be able to be replicated
oReplication – repetition of an experiment to repeat the results
-By repeating and confirming scientists are able to build the principles of
psychological science
2. The Empirical process depends on theories, hypothesis and research
-Empirical process is a dynamic relationship between three elements
oTheory – a model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what
is observed and makes predictions about the future
oHypothesis – a specific prediction as to what should be observed in the
real world if the theory is correct
www.notesolution.com
Direct test of the theory
oResearch – scientific process that involves the systematic ad careful
collection of data
-Data – objective observations or measurement
oShould test the hypothesis and the theory
-Good research reflects a dynamism relationship between the three elements
a.Theories should generate hypotheses
-Good theory produces a variety of testable hypotheses
oGood theory - Jean Piagets theory of infant-child development
oBad theory – Freud’s theory that dreams represent fulfillment of wishes
Actual function of dreams cannot be scientifically studied
b. The value on unexpected findings
-Research does not always proceed in orderly fashion
-Serendipity – the unexpected stumbling on something important
oWhen some even occurs when it was not part of the original plan
-Study of cats response to dots, when slides jammed it was discovered that their
vision responds to edges and lines
Review
-Subjective beliefs are formed on limited information and can be biased
-To explain something scientists need to study it objectively, systematically using
scientific method
-The for goals of psychological science when trying to explain behavior or mental
activity is to:
oDescribe – what
oPredict – when
oControl – what causes
oExplain – why
-Empirical process based on theories
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Research Methodology - People form opinions and explanations as to why some act the way the do, many of those explanations are false - Critical thinking is a systemized scrutinizing of the evidence through scientific method o Skepticism o Objective approach to questions - Intuitions are usually founded on limited information and might be biased o Intuitions are used to guide scientific research rather than answer its questions - To answer questions, scientists use objective, systematic procedures so they can develop an accurate understanding of the phenomena they are trying to study - Hypothesis o Test the hypothesis (by may be setting up a study) o Experiments in which you manipulate situation in order to see changes that occur in the mental state or behaviour Compare your finding with a control group Once youre collected the data you use statistical procedures to analyze it What is scientific inquiry? 1. Scientific questions can be objectively answered - Science assumes that the world works in an orderly fashion based on physical laws - Scientific method is the objective examinations of the natural world - Scientific inquire has four basic goals o What happens (Description) Description stare Observations in a systematic fashion o When it happens (Prediction) When a certain behaviour. Mental process occurs www.notesolution.com Observation can reveal that evens happen together So one can be used to predict the occurrence of the other o What causes it to happen (Causal Control) Causal control Systematically varying the situation to produce a change in behaviour or mental state Cause-Effect relationship between variables o Why it happens (Explanation) Explanation as to why something happens - To fully understand a phenomena it is required to examine it across different levels on analysis, which is the essence of scientific inquiry - Scientific inquire is the study of empirical questions which can be answered by observing and measuring the world around us - Scientific questions are those that can be tested and either confirmed or shown to be false - It does not matter what the scientist think about the questions - Answers to empirical questions should be able to be answered in a similar manner by different researchers - If the study is properly designed and conducted and the findings are valid, the study needs to be able to be replicated o Replication repetition of an experiment to repeat the results - By repeating and confirming scientists are able to build the principles of psychological science 2. The Empirical process depends on theories, hypothesis and research - Empirical process is a dynamic relationship between three elements o Theory a model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about the future o Hypothesis a specific prediction as to what should be observed in the real world if the theory is correct www.notesolution.com Direct test of the theory o Research scientific process that involves the systematic ad careful collection of data - Data objective observations or measurement o Should test the hypothesis and the theory - Good research reflects a dynamism relationship between the three elements a. Theories should generate hypotheses - Good theory produces a variety of testable hypotheses o Good theory - Jean Piagets theory of infant-child development o Bad theory Freuds theory that dreams represent fulfillment of wishes Actual function of dreams cannot be scientifically studied b. The value on unexpected findings - Research does not always proceed in orderly fashion - Serendipity the unexpected stumbling on something important o When some even occurs when it was not part of the original plan - Study of cats response to dots, when slides jammed it was discovered that their vision responds to edges and lines Review - Subjective beliefs are formed on limited information and can be biased - To explain something scientists need to study it objectively, systematically using scientific method - The for goals of psychological science when trying to explain behavior or mental activity is to: o Describe what o Predict when o Control what causes o Explain why - Empirical process based on theories www.notesolution.com o Hypothesis Collection of objective data - Theories must be adjusted and/or refined, good theory lots of hypotheses What are the types of studies is psychological research? - There are three main types of research studies o Experimental o Correlation o Descriptive Differ the extent to which the researched has the control over variables - Variable something in the world that can be measured and that can vary o Researcher can either measure or manipulate the variable o In alcohol and driving, ex level of intoxication Control over variables dictates the extent to which conclusions about causation can be made - Variables must be clearly, precisely defined that reflect the method used to assess them o This is done using operational definitions Operational definitions the qualification of variable that allows it to be measured, quantifies the variable Ex how would you quantify coordination while under the influence of alcohol? o Having people touch their nose, the operational definition is the number of inches people miss by o Concrete definitions of variables would help other researchers to precisely know what is being measured This would allow them to replicate the study www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit