Textbook Notes (270,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSG (10,000)
PSY (3,000)
PSY100H1 (1,000)
Chapter 13

PSY100H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Object Relations Theory, Phallic Stage, Carl Jung

Course Code
Alison Luby

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
-Personality: the characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors that are relatively stable in an individual
over time and across circumstances
Gordon Allport (1937) gave classic definition of personality and defined personality psychology: emphasized the
notion of organization (coherent whole), dynamic, psychophysical systems and characteristic in defining
Studying Personality
Psychodynamic Theory
-Freudian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives, influence behavior
The psychic forces are called instincts; ppl satisfy the life instinct by following the pleasure principle, directing
ppl to seek pleasure and avoid pain
The energy that drives the pleasure principle is the libido
-Topographical Model of Consciousness: Freud theorized that mental activity occurs in three zones: Unconscious,
Preconscious (not currently in awareness but could be brought to awareness; analogous to LTM) and Conscious Level
Some unconscious information leaks into consciousness and causes Freudian Slip, revealing hidden motive
-Believed that early childhood experiences have major impact on the development of personality: children go through
developmental stages corresponding to pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges
-Psychosexual Stages: developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of libidinal urges
Oral Stages: birth to 18 months; pleasure is sought through mouth (e.g. infants associate pleasure w/ sucking)
Anal Stage: 2-3 y/o and toilet trained; learn to focus on control of bowels
Phallic Stage: 3-5 y/o; direct libidinal energies toward the genitals; boys develop the Oedipus Complex
Latency Stage: brief; libidinal urges suppressed by doing schoolwork/building friendships
Genital Stage: adolescents/adults attain mature attitudes about sexuality and adulthood
-some ppl become fixated at a stage when they receive parental restriction/indulgence (e.g. those fixated at oral stage may
develop oral personalities, seeking pleasure by smoking, and anal-retentive personalities may result from overly strict
toilet training)
-proposed Structural Model of Personality: three structures that vary in degree of consciousness
id: the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according to
pleasure principle
superego: internalization of parental and societal standards of conduct; developed during phallic phase; rigid
structure of morality and conscience
ego: tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego; operates according
to the reality principle (rational thought and problem solving)
ego tries to cope w/ conflicts b/w id and superego using defense mechanisms (mental strategies the mind uses to
protect itself from distress); e.g. ppl rationalize their behavior by blaming situation factors over which they have
little control like finding excuses
research provides evidence for defense mechanisms: reaction formation occurs when person wards off
uncomfortable thought about the self by embracing the opposite thought: e.g. male participants who expressed
most negative views of homosexuality showed greater physiological arousal when viewing homosexual sex
videos (homophobia may result from repression of homosexual impulses)
-neo-Freudians reject Freud’s emphasis on sexual forces and focus on children’s emotional attachments to their parents:
embodied in object relations theory: the object of attachment is another person, such as parent or spouse
Humanistic Approaches
-by 50’s, most psychological theories of personality were deterministic (e.g. Freud thought personality determined by
unconscious conflicts, Skinner thought patterns of reinforcement determine response tendencies, which are the basis of
personality) then humanistic approach emerged
-Humanistic Approach: emphasize personal experience and belief systems; propose that humans seek to fulfill their
potential for personal growth through greater self-understanding (self-actualization)
focus on subjective human experience phenomenology

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

-Carl Rogers developed person-centered approach to personality that emphasizes ppl’s personal understandings, or
highlights how parental treatment affects personality development: parents who display conditional love cause
children to abandon true feelings/desires and accept only parts of themselves like elicit parental love
encouraged parents to raise their children with unconditional positive regard, which will allow child to become
fully functioning person
-research on subjective well-being shows that wealthiest countries often have highest levels of satisfaction
-Broaden-and-Build Theory suggests that positive emotions prompt ppl to consider novel solutions to their problems,
and thus resilient ppl tend to draw on their positive emotions in dealing w/ setbacks
research shows that resilient ppl experience positive emotions even under stress
Description-Focused Approaches to Personality
-psychodynamic and humanistic approaches seek to explain mental processes that shape personality; individuals differ b/c
they experience different conflicts, treated differently by parents, etc.
-other approaches focus on description:
-Personality Type: discrete categories of ppl; our tendency to assume that certain personality characteristics go together
is called implicit personality theory
-Personality Trait: characteristic; dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time across circumstances
-Trait Approach to Personality: provides method for assessing the extent to which individuals differ in personality
Eysenck’s Hierarchical Model
-specific response level
habitual response level
trait level
superordinate level
-specific response consists of observable behaviors; if behaviors are repeated, they become habitual; if behavior occurs
the same way in many occasions, it becomes a trait; traits are components of superordinate traits:
introversion/extroversion, emotional stability, and psychoticism (aggression, impulse control, empathy)
-Eysenck believed introversion/extroversion (coined by Carl Jung) reflects differences in biological functioning
The Big Five
-the idea that personality can be described using five factors: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion,
agreeableness and neuroticism (OCEAN)
each factor is high-order trait comprising interrelated lower-order traits (e.g. neuroticism involves worried vs.
calm, insecure vs. secure, self-pitying vs. self-satisfied; conscientious involves careful vs. careless, organized vs.
disorganized, self-disciplined vs. weak-willed)
-the Big Five is supported by evidence: emerges across cultures, among adults and children
-scores on Big Five shown to predict behavior, satisfaction w/ jobs, marriages and life
-personality studies show interpersonal relatedness (harmony) is important in China but not in Western cultures
-factors uniquely predict certain outcomes: conscientiousness predicts grades in university but not standardized tests;
openness to experiences predicts scores on standardized tests but not grades
highly conscientious tend to work hard (important for grades); open ppl tend to use words very well (important
for standardized tests)
Effects of Learning and Cognition on Personality
-George Kelly (1955) emphasized the importance of ppl’s understandings, personal constructs, of their circumstances in
understanding personality (personal theories of how the world works)
personal constructs develop through ppl’s experiences and represent their interpretations and explanations for
events in their social worlds
-Rotter said that behavior is a function of ppl’s expectancies for reinforcement, as well as the values they ascribe to
particular reinforcers; ppl differ in their beliefs that their efforts will lead to positive outcomes
Ppl w/ internal locus of control believe they bring about their own rewards
Ppl w/ external locus of control believe that rewards/personal fates result from forces beyond their control
-Cognitive-Social Theories of Personality: emphasize how personal beliefs, expectancies, and interpretations of social
situations shape behavior and personality
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version