PSY321H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Ilongot Language, Autonomic Nervous System, Cheq Wong Language

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Published on 13 Sep 2012
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CHAPTER 8 EMOTIONS
- Ilongot, an indigenous tribe in the Northern Philippines
- key emotion, liget, meaning (approximation) anger, passion, energy
- justification for head hunting rituals
What Is an Emotion?
The James-Lange Theory of Emotion
- James, our emotions are the physiological responses to stimuli in our world
- Lange, these physiological responses were products of our autonomic nervous system
- our bodies respond to stimuli by preparing us to react in a survival-facilitating way
- our emotions are our bodily changes that signal how we should behave
- suggests that people in all cultures should have the same emotional experiences
The Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
- emotions are primarily our interpretations of bodily responses
- (Schacter & Singer, 1962) participants completed a questionnaire in a situation where arousal
would be interpreted as either euphoria or anger
- also manipulated amount of physiological arousal experienced
- placebo, given saline and truthfully told the injection wouldn’t have any side effects
on their state of arousal
- epinephrine-informed, epinephrine-uninformed, epinephrine-misinformed (told it
would decrease their arousal)
- predicted that in the last two conditions, where participants would experience arousal but
wouldn’t know why, would look to the situation to interpret their feelings
- placebo, would experience little arousal and thus little emotion
- epinephrine-informed, would experience little emotion because they would attribute
it to the side effects of the injection
- in general, results supported predictions
- suggests that our emotions are grounded in the belief system that shape our interpretations,
people might interpret physiological signals differently across cultures
The Role Appraisals in Emotions
- the emotional response isn’t determined directly by the event itself; our appraisal of what the
event means leads to the response
- appraisals are the way we evaluate events in terms of their relevance to our well-being
- given the overall similarity of humans’ environments and basic needs, there should be a great
deal of similarity in the ways people appraise events across cultures
- universally similar appraisals should lead to universally similar emotional responses
- cultures differ in the way people understand what the situation means and its significance;
differences in beliefs and values will shape appraisals
- example of illness
- define emotion as the affective response to an appraisal
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- explorations of cultural variation would just require investigation on whether there are
cultural differences in appraisals
Does Emotional Experience Vary Across Cultures?
Emotions and Facial Expressions
- facial expressions often appear rather reflexive
- same facial expressions that adults make are made by very young infants, even those born
blind
Evidence for Cultural Universals in Facial Expression
- Darwin, if chimpanzees made facial expressions that resembled those of humans, it would be
highly suggestive of universality
- noticed striking parallels in the expressions that various primates made with those that
humans made (for some emotional responses)
- (Ekman & Friesen, 1971) took 1000s of photos of people posing 6 different emotional
expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise)
- shown a set of photos most easily recognized by Americans to individuals in other
countries and asked to select which of a set of 6 terms best matched the expression
- emotional correctly identified in 80-90% of photos
- however, the 5 cultures weren’t all that different from each other to begin with
- Ekman, Fore of New Guinea had virtually no exposure to Western ways
- told to imagine a story and to make a corresponding facial expression
- smiled when happy, frowned when sad, scowled when angry etc
- proposed a set of basic emotions that are universally recognized
- anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust
Evidence for Cultural Variability in Facial Expressions
- success rates for identifying American-posed faces was best among English speakers, then
other Indo-European language speakers, non-Indo-European language speakers, and lastly
preliterate societies
- people are ~9% more accurate in judging facial expression of people from their own culture
(on average, 58% accuracy overall)
- the more people are exposed to another culture, the more accurate their judgments were
- “basic” VS “non-basic” emotions
- no clear-cut boundary separating the two; unclear if decreasing performance indicates
emotions that don’t have a clearly distinct facial expression or cultural variability
Displaying Emotions Versus Experiencing Them
- we have much conscious control over our facial expressions
- (Kraut & Johnston, 1979) recorded facial expressions of bowlers in bowling alley
- when they get a strike, they didn’t usually smile until they turned to look at their
teammates (after throwing)
- they didn’t express their happiness until they had an opportunity to communicate it
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Document Summary

Ilongot, an indigenous tribe in the northern philippines. Key emotion, liget, meaning (approximation) anger, passion, energy. James, our emotions are the physiological responses to stimuli in our world. Lange, these physiological responses were products of our autonomic nervous system. Our bodies respond to stimuli by preparing us to react in a survival-facilitating way. Our emotions are our bodily changes that signal how we should behave. Suggests that people in all cultures should have the same emotional experiences. Emotions are primarily our interpretations of bodily responses. (schacter & singer, 1962) participants completed a questionnaire in a situation where arousal would be interpreted as either euphoria or anger. Also manipulated amount of physiological arousal experienced. Placebo, given saline and truthfully told the injection wouldn"t have any side effects on their state of arousal. Epinephrine-informed, epinephrine-uninformed, epinephrine-misinformed (told it would decrease their arousal)

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