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important terms to study

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Dan Dolderman

Psychology Termsconcepts Themes of psychological science Psychological science: The study of mind, brain and behaviour. (1) It is cumulative, (2) A biological evolution has been energizing psychological research, (3) Influenced by evolutionary theory the mind is adaptive, (4) Focus on the same problem but at different levels of analysis. Mind : refers to mental activity, such as your thoughts and feelings. Result from biological process from the brain. The mind is what the brain does. Many accumulative evidence indicates that the human mind is adaptive in both biological terms and cultural terms. Brain : refers to activity of the nerve cells and is associated with chemical reaction. It works trough the actions of chemicals known as neurotransmitters which communicate messages between nerve cells. This has provided many new insights into mental activity and behaviour, also used to help people with various psychological disorders. Behaviour : used to describe a wide variety of action, from the subtle to the complex that occurs in organisms. Evolutionary theory: in psychological science, a theory that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive value of behaviour and mental activities throughout the entire history of a species. It describes the brain as an organ that has evolved over millions of years to solve problems related to survival and reproduction. It suggest that we must seek to understand the challenges that faced our early ancestors to understand much of our current behaviour Natural selection: is Darwins theory that does who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular environment have a selective advantage over those who do not. Adaptation: in evolutionary theory, the physical characteristic, skills, or abilities that increase the chance of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be passed along future generations. Culture: the beliefs, values, and customs that exists within a group of people who share a common language and environment and are transmitted trough learning from one generation to the next. The cultures in which we live shape many aspects of daily life. Categories of analysis The social aspect: involves an examination of how cultural and social context influences the way people interact and influence each other. (Cultural and interpersonal) The individual aspect: concerns individual differences in personality and mental processes that concern how we perceive and know our worlds. (Individual differences, perception and cognition, behaviour) The biological aspect: deals with how the physical body contributes to mind and behaviour, such as the neurochemical and genetic processes that occur with the body and brain. (Brain systems, neurochemical, genetic) www.notesolution.comOrigins of psychological science Nature-nurture debates: the arguments concerning whether psychological characteristic are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture. It is now widely recognized that both nature and nurture are important, they are tightly interwoven and inseparable. Mind-body problem : a fundamental psychological issue that considers whether mind and body are separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of the physical brain. Dualism : the philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the physical body. The mind and body are separate yet intertwined. Foundation of psychology Introspection: a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts. Used in the development of the new school of structuralism Structuralism: an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into basic underlying components or elements. By understanding the basic elements of consciousness it would provide the scientific basis for understanding the mind. The problem with this approach is that experience is subjective. Stream of consciousness: the mind could not be broken down into elements; it is a system of continuous series of thoughts that are ever-changing. Ideology used for the school of functionalism. Functionalism: an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behaviour. It was more concerned with how the mind operates than with what the mind contains. It led to criticism that this method was not sufficiently rigorous. Gestalt theory: a theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements, or the whole is different from the sum of its parts. Phenomenological approach: unstructured reporting of subjective experience. The mind perceives the world in an organized fashion that cannot be broken down into its constituent elements Unconscious: a term that identifies mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness Psychoanalysis: a method developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to content of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflict can be revealed. It uses methods of dream analysis and free association. Behaviourism: a psychological approaches that emphasis the role of environmental forces in producing behaviour. Environmental stimuli can predict behavioural responses, also repeated behaviour is influenced by consequences of rewardpunishment. Many of the principles established by behaviourists continue to be viewed as critical to understanding the mind, brain, and behaviour. www.notesolution.com
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