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Psychological Science - Third Canadian Edition - Chapter Six Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY (CHAPTER 6) CLASSICAL CONDITIONING / PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING = a type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE = a response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS = a stimulus that elicits a response without any prior learning CONDITIONED STIMULUS = a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place CONDITIONED RESPONSE = a response to a conditioned stimulus that has been learned ACQUISTION = the gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli EXTINCTION = a process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY = a process in which a previously extinguished response re-emerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus STIMULUS GENERALIZATION = occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION = a differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus RESCORLA-WAGNER MODEL = a cognitive model of classical conditioning; it states that the strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected OPERANT CONDITIONING / INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING = a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future LAW OF EFFECT = Thorndike’s general theory of learning; any behaviour that leads to a satisfying state of affairs will more likely occur again, and any behaviour that leads to an annoying state of affairs will less likely recur REINFORCER = a stimulus that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated SHAPING = a process of operant conditioning; it involves reinforcing behaviours that are increasingly similar to the desired behaviour POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = the increase in the probability of a behaviour’s being repeated following the administration of a stimulus NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = the increase in the probability of a behaviour’s being repeated through the removal of a stimulus POSITIVE PUNISHMENT = punishment that occurs with the administration of a stimulus and thus decreases the probability of a behaviour’s recurring NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT = punishment that occurs with the removal of a stimulus and thus decreases the probability of a behaviour’s recurring CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT = a type of learning in which the desired behaviour is reinforced each time it occurs PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT = a type of learning in which behaviour is reinforced intermittently RATIO SCHEDULE = reinforcement is based on the number of times the behaviour occurs INTERVAL SCHEDULE = reinforcement is available after a specific unit of time FIXED SCHEDULE = reinforcement is consistently provided after a specific number of occurrences or a specific amount of time VARIABLE SCHEDULE = reinforcement is applied at different rates or at different times PARTIAL-REINFORCEMENT EXTINCTION EFFECT = the greater persistence of behaviour under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION = the use of operant conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviours and replace them with desirable ones COGNITIVE MAP = a visual/spatial mental representation of an environment LATENT LEARNING = learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING = learning that occurs when behaviours are acquired or modified following exposure to others performing the behaviour MODELLING = the imitation of behaviour through observational learning VICARIOUS LEARNING = learning that occurs when people learn the consequences of an action by observing others being rewarded or punished for performing the action HABITUATION = a decrease in behavioural response following repeated exposure to nonthreatening stimuli SENSITIZATION = an
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