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Chapter 2

PSYB32 Chapter 2 Textbook Notes.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

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Chapter 2 A paradigm is a set of basic assumptions, a general perspective, that defines how to conceptualize and study a subject, how to gather and interpret relevant data, even how to think about a particular subject. Paradigms are an intrinsic part of a science, serving the vital function of indicating the rules to be followed There are 4 major types of paradigms: 1. Biological 2. Cognitive-behavioural 3. Psychoanalytic 4. Humanistic-existential The Biological Paradigm The board perspective holds that mental disorders are cused by aberrant biological processes. This paradigm has been referred to as the medical model or Disease Model. Louis Pasteur discovered the relationship between bacteria and disease and soon thereafter postulated viruses, the germ theory of disease provided a new explanation for pathology. External symptoms were assumed to be produced through infection of the body by minute organisms and viruses. For a time, the germ theory was the paradigm of medicine but soon this theory couldn’t account for all diseases  Heart disease is an example o Can be caused by genetic makeup, smoking, obesity, life stress or even the person’s personality o They all share one characteristic: in all of them, some biological process is disrupted or not functioning properly. o This is why we are call this biological paradigm Biological Paradigm was the dominate paradigm in Canada from the late 1800s until atleast the middle o the 20 century Each chromosome is made up of thousands of genes, the carriers of the genetic information (DNA) passed from parents to child. Behaviour Genetics: is the study of individual differences in behaviour that are attributable in part to differences in genetic makeup Genotype: unobservable genetic constitution; fixed at birth Phenotype: totality of their observable, behavioural characteristics (level of anxiety); changes over time and is viewed as the product of an interaction between the genotype and the environment A predisposition aka Diathesis, may be inherited but not the disorder itself The study of behaviour genetics has relied on four basic methods to uncover whether a predisposition for psychopathology is inherited: 1. Comparison of numbers of a family (family method) 2. Comparison of pairs of twins (twin method) 3. The investigation of adoptees (adoptees method) 4. Linkage analysis. Family method: children receive a random sample of half their genes from one parent and half from the other, therefore, on average, siblings as well as parents and their children are identical in 50% of their genetic backgrounds  First degree relatives – people who share 50% of their genes – of that person  Second degree relatives – people who share 25% of their genes – nephew, nieces If a predisposition for a mental disorder can be inherited, a study of the family should reveal a relationship between the number of shared genes and the prevalence of the disorder in relatives About 10% of the first degree relatives of index cases with schizophrenia can be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, compared with about 1% of the general population Index cases: collection of sample of individuals who bare the diagnosis in question Twin Method: twin studies begin with diagnosed cases and then search for the presence of the disorder in the other twin. When the twins are similar diagnostically, they are concordant (inherited).  monozygotic/identical twins develop from a single fertilizer egg and are genetically the same o always the same sex  dizygotic/fraternal twins develop from separate eggs and are on average only 50% alike genetically – no more alike than any other two siblings o can be same sex or opposite genders the Equal Environment Assumption: is that the environment factors that are partial causes of concordance are equal influential for MZ twins and DZ twins (does not mean that MZ and DZ twins grew up in the same environment) The assumption would assert that MZ and DZ have equivalent numbers of stressful life experiences Adoptees Method: studies abnormal disorder who were adopted and reared apart from their parents  benefit of eliminating the effects of being raised by disordered parents  if found that the child had high frequencies of panic disorder were reared apart from parents who had panic disorder; can support the theory that a genetic predisposition figures in the disorder the term “Genetic Polymorphism” refers to variability among members of the species. It involves differences in the DNA sequence that can manifest in very different forms among members in the same habitat. Linkage Analysis: a method in molecular genetics that is used to study people; - they collect diagnostic information and blood samples from affected individuals and their relatives and use the blood samples from affected individuals and their relatives and use the blood samples to study the inheritance pattern of characteristics whose genetics are fully understood, referred as to genetic markers. *Molecular genetics is a highly advanced approach that goes beyond mere attempts to show whether a disorder has a genetic component; it tries to specify the particular gene(s) involved and the precise functions of these genes Neuroscience and Biochemistry in the Nervous system Neuroscience is the study of the brain and the nervous system. The nervous system I composed of billions of neurons which has 4 major parts (neuron) 1. cell body 2. several dendrites 3. one or more axons of varying lengths 4. terminal buttons *figure 2.1 on page 41 has an excellent diagram of the neuron When a neuron is appropriately stimulated at its cell body or through its dendrites, a nerve impulse, which is a change in the electric potential of the cell, travels down the axon to the terminal endings. Between terminal endings of the sending axon and the cell membrane of the receiving neuron, there is a small gap, called the synapse. (figure 2.2 on page 42) A terminal buttons of each axon contain synaptic vesicles, small structures that are filled with neurotransmitters, chemical substances that allow a nerve impulse to cross the synapse. PAGE 42 –re-read to understand how the neuron works…. Quite hard to understand or PSYA01 notes Systematic Nervous System: is involved in producing states of high arousal and thus may be involved in anxiety disorder Both Serotonin and Dopamine are neurotransmitters in the brain  Serotonin may be involved in depression  Dopamine may be involved in schizophrenia Maturational changes (puberty) influence neurotransmitter levels. Results in a decrease in serotonin and a decrease in dopamine activity in certain cortical areas *page 43/44, diagram of the brain and labelled with all the lobes (frontal, temporal…etc) + slice of brain Biological Approaches to Treatment Prevention or treatment of mental disorders should be possible by altering bodily functioning Psychoactive drugs:  tranquilizers such as Valium can be effective in reducing the tension associated with some anxiety disorders, perhaps by stimulating GABA neurons to inhibit other neural systems that create the physical symptoms of anxiety  antidepressants such as Prozac, increase neural transmission in neurons that use serotonin as a neurotransmitter by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin.  Antipsychotic such as Clozaril, used in the treatment of schizophrenia, reduce activity of neurons that use dopamine as a neurotransmitter by blocking their receptors.  Stimulants such as Ritalin, used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, increases the levels of several neurotransmitters that help children pay attention Reductionism refers to the view that whatever I being studied can and should be reduced to its most basic elements so mental disorders; the position proposes reducing complex mental and emotional responses to simple biology The behavioural perspective Behaviourism: an approach that focuses on observable behaviour rather than on consciousness. Classical Conditioning In Pavlov’s experiment with the dog salivating when it gets fed meat + the ring of the bell telling its dinner time.  Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): meat  Unconditioned response (UCR): salivation  Conditioned Stimulus (CS) / neutral stimulus: the sound of the bell  Conditioned Response (CR): Salivation from the sound of the bell alone Extinction: when the conditioned response disappears (gradually) due to the unconditioned stimulus (meat) not being present for a few times Operant Conditioning B.F.Skinner introduced this over 60 years ago. It applied to behaviour that operates on the environment Discriminative Stimulus: to refer to external events that in effect tells an organism that if it performs a certain behaviour a certain consequence will follow.  Positive Reinforcement  Negative Reinforcement Operant conditioning can produce abnormal behaviour. Aggression is often rewarded as when one child hits another to get a toy (toy is the reinforcer) Behavioural Therapy Because behaviour approaches assume that behaviour Is the result of learning, treatment often involves relearning a new, more adaptive response. “Counterconditioning” is relearning achieved by eliciting a new response in the presence of a particular stimulus. (a response#1 to a given stimulus can be eliminated by eliciting a new response#2 in the presence of that stimulus) The counterconditioning principle is behind an important behaviour theory technique: systematic desensitization. The technique is based on relaxation while confronting their fears, it encourages frightened individuals to confront their fears Good for reducing a wide range of fears Another type of counterconditioning is aversive conditioning; a stimulus attractive to the client is paired with an unpleasant event such as a drug that makes you feel nauseated The Cognitive Perspective The Cognitive Paradigm focuses on how people structure their experiences, how they make sense of them and how they relate their current experiences to past ones that have been stored in memory. The learner fits new information into organized network of already accumulated knowledge, often referred to as a schema. New information may fit the schema but if it does not, the learner reorganizes the schema to fit the information or construes the information in such a way as to fit the schema The psychiatrist Aaron Beck developed a cognitive therapy for depression based on the idea that a depressed mood is caused by distortion in the way people perceive life experiences (focus on negative happenings and ignore positive ones) - Beck’s therapy tries to persuade clients to change their opinions of themselves and the way in which they interpret life events - When clients feel that nothing ever is going right, therapist offers counter-examples pointing out how the client has overlooked favourable happenings - Goal of this therapy is to provide clients with experiences, both inside and out the consulting room - Will alter their negative schemas and dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes – replacing negative thoughts with more adaptive thoughts The aim of Rational-Emotive Behaviour Theory (REBT) is to eliminate self-defeating beliefs through a rational examination of them. (eg. Anxious people making unr
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