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Psychology (2,971)
PSY100H1 (1,821)
Chapter 1

PSYB32 Chapter 1 Textbook Notes.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter One Psychopathology: field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behaviour, thoughts and feelings Abnormality is usually determined by the presence of several characteristics at one time. Abnormal Behaviour: characteristics as statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability and unexpectedness  Behaviour is abnormal if it creates great distress and torment in the person experiencing it  Disability can be the impairment in some important area of life (work or personal relationships  Abnormal/unexpected responses to environmental stressors (anxiety disorder is diagnosed when the anxiety is unexpecfted and out of proportion to the situation; as person who is well off constantly worries about their financial situation) Normal Curve: (statistical Infrequency) places the majority of people in the middle as far as any particular characteristic is concerned; very few people fall at either extremes. (figure 1.1 on page 3)  Statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation Demonology: the doctrine that an evil being, such as the devil may dwell within a person and control his or her mind and body. Bad spirits possessing the person  Records of this in early Chinese, Egyptians, Babylonians and Greeks Exorcism: treatment; the casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture Trepanning: the making of a surgical opening in the living skull by some instrument  Introduced into the Americas from Siberia  Practice was most common in Peru and Bolivia  Kidd suggested that trepannings were done to relieve pressure resulting from depressed fractures caused by war clubs Hippocrates regarded as the father of modern medicine, separated medicine from religion, magic and superstition. He regarded the brain as the organ of consciousness, of intellectual life and emotion. He though deviant thinking and behaviour were indications of some kind of brain pathology. He believed in natural and not supernatural causes. Somatogenesis: the notion that something wrong with the soma, or physical body, disturbs thought and action Psychogenesis: the belief that disturbance ha psychological origins th Torturing was not allowed in England but in the 13 century, lunacy trials began to determine a person’s sanity. The trials were conducted under the Crown’s right to protect the mentally impaired, and a judgement of insanity allowed the Crown to become guardian of the lunatic’s estate Bethlehem believed that lunatics could be cured by being frightened Moral Treatment: patients had close contact with the attendants, who talked and read to them and encouraged them to engage in purposeful activity; General Paresis: disease established in 1857 and some patients had syphilis earlier. Many theories of the origin of Paresis:  A lot of sailors had it so it was associat
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