Textbook Notes (362,815)
Canada (158,059)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY100H1 (1,804)

ch13,16 lecture notes

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

Chapter 13: Personality • Personality: The characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviours that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances Strong Situations: - Powerful social environments - Mask differences in personality - E.g., Job interviews, funerals, hanging out with your boss Weak Situations: - Allow people to behave more freely - Easier to discern personality differences - E.g., At home, at a bar, hanging out with friends Different Ways of Studying & Understanding Personality • Unconscious processes – E.g., Sigmund Freud • Personal experiences – E.g., Carl Rogers • Trait approaches – E.g., Hans Eysenck • Cognitive approaches – E.g., Walter Mischel Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory • Emphasizes the influence of unconscious forces on behaviour • Defence mechanisms: Unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself Humanistic Approaches • Emphasize personal experience and belief systems; propose that people seek personal growth to fulfill their human potential  self-actualization • Roger’s person-centred approach o Phenomenology  Subjective human experience o Unconditional positive regard • Positive psychology o E.g., Broaden-and-build theory Type & Trait Approaches • Personality ______: A characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances o The trait approach emphasizes the extent to which individuals differ in personality dispositions • Personality ______: Discrete categories based on global personality characteristics o Implicit personality theory  we tend to believe that certain personality characteristics go together How Many Traits? Eysenk’s Hierarchical Model • Introversion/Extroversion Emotional Stability Psychoticism (Restraint) The Big Five(or Five-Factor Theory • Openness to experience • Conscientiousness • Extroversion • Agreeableness • Neuroticism The Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) I see myself as: Cognitive Approaches • Cognitive-social theories: – Bandura  human’s possess mental capacities, such as beliefs, thoughts, and expectations, that interact with environment to influence behaviour • Self-efficacy • Observational learning – Mischel’s cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) • Situationism • Self-regulatory capacities Ways to Assess/Measure Personality • _______________ Approaches – Person-centred, focus on individual lives • Case studies: Interviews, biographical information • Narratives: Life story, personal myths • ______________ Approaches – Common traits, unique combinations • Projective measures: Rorschach inkblot, TAT • Objective measures: Self-reports, observer ratings Who Knows You Best? People who have known you for a _________, and across a _______________________, tend to be the best at predicting your behaviour – even better than you! Why? • They may actually pay more attention to your behaviour than you do • You may be more prone to biases in your self-reports than others are How do we know and understand ourselves? • Self-_________: Everything you know about yourself! o Working self-concept • Self-_______: Cognitive aspect of the self-concept, consisting of an integrated set of memories beliefs, and generalizations about the self • Self-_______: The evaluative aspect of the self-concept o Sociometer theory • We use a host of mental strategies to maintain our positive self-views o Self-serving biases Does personality change over time? • Traits do tend to be remarkably stable over time o Fluctuate most in childhood o Stability is highest after age 50 • As people age, they tend to become: o Less neurotic, extroverted, & open to new experiences o More agreeable & conscientious The Biology of Personality • Nearly all personality traits have a genetic component o ______________: Broader than traits; biologically based tendencies to feel and act in certain ways o Activity level o Emotionality o Sociability • Childhood temperament is predictive of adult behaviours o Inhibited newborns  shy children/teenagers • BUT environment also important • Neurophysiological mechanisms: o Gray’s BIS/BAS systems Behavioural approach system (BAS): • The “go” system • Stronger than BIS system in extroverts Behavioural inhibition system (BIS): • The “stop” system • Stronger than BAS system in introverts Cultural Differences • At the individual level: o Self-concept • Interdependent vs. independent self-construals o Self-enhancement • More broadly: – Cultural stereotypes  are they true? Chapter 16: Cultural Psychology What is culture? – Broadly defined  Culture is any kind of information acquired by individuals through imitative or social learning. Is culture unique to humans? Yes and no. Significance of Cultural Information • Humans are particularly skilled at social learning: • Sophisticated communication skills: Nim Chimpsky • Theory of mind: “High precision cultural learning”  allows humans to accumulate cultural information Social animals may figure out good ways of doing things and may copy something they see another doing. Cultural animals (humans) deliberately share their knowledge, so that it can be preserved and passed on. Cultural Psychology: study of how culture shapes psychological processes ie/cultural vs. social environments • Psychological experiences are both similar and different across cultures Some examples of universalities: Males more aggressive, Marriage, Preference for own kin, Children fear strangers, Facial expressions, Language; use of narrative, Wariness of snakes, Group living • Western (“independent/individualistic”) versus Eastern (“interdependent/collectivist”) cultures Learning C
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.