Textbook Notes (362,798)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY100H1 (1,804)


27 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

SUMMARY OF THE BRAIN (CHAPTER 3) Neuropsychology - – study of the brain Communication in the nervous system Basic Hardware Brain 1. Glia - structural support, nourishment, removal of waste 2. Neurons – - receive, integrate and transmit info Soma – cell body, contains nucleus Dendrites – branches from soma that receive info Axon – thin fibre that transmits info from one neuron to the other  Myelin Sheath – encloses axon and speeds up the transmission of signals, if damaged  multiple sclerosis Terminal buttons  Neurotransmitters – messengers that activate other neurons  Synapse – junction where info is transmitted from one neuron to the other Dentrites SomaAxon (Myelin sheath)-->– Synapse- Terminal Buttons (Neurotransmitters)  Resting Potential - cell is inactive, negative charge  Action Potential - cell membrane open  positive sodium ions less negative charge, or positive  Absolute Refractory period - time period after action potential during which another action potential cannot begin  All or nothing law - neuron either fires or it doesn’t – weaker stimuli does not produce weaker action potential, however the rate is smaller at which they fire Sending Signals  Synaptic cleft - the microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of the other  Presynaptic neuron - neuron that sends the signal across the gap  Post synaptic neuron - neuron that receives the signal  Synaptic Vesicles - contain the neurotransmitters  Transmission of neurotransmitters 1. vesicles fuse with the membrane of the presynaptic cell and release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft 2. neurotransmitters bind with the postsynaptic neuron at various receptor sites (may allow in some neurotransmitters but not the others) 3. once entered receptor sites -some are destroyed by enzymes -most are absorbed by the postsynaptic neuron through the process of reuptake Sending Signals  Postsynaptic potential (PSP) - the voltage change in the receptor sites of the postsynaptic cell membrane 1. Positive shift – exitatory PSP – increases likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potential 2. Negative Shift – inhibitory PSP – decreases likelyhood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potential Integrading (processing) Signals  Intergrade signals – decide whether or not it should fire the signal, if 1. exitatory PSP add up  postsynaptic neuron will fire action potential 2. inhibitory PSP (cancel out exitatory PSP’s)  postsynaptic neurop will not fire action potential Neurotransmitters and behaviour  Acetycholine (ACh) – activates motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles (typing, walking, talking) - regulates attention, erousal and memory Althought sensitive to specific neurotransmitters receptors can be “fooled” by other chemicals, like tobaco. It acts like ACh itself.  Antagonist- it mimics the action of neurotransmitter Some chemicals bind to receprors but fail to work and block the action of the narural transmitter by occupying its receptor cites  Protagonist- opppses the action of neurotransmitter  Monoamines 1. Dopamine (DA) – control of voluntary movement – decreased level parkinson desease – averactivity schizophrenia (halusinations, poor contact with reality) - cocaine and amphetamineincreased activity of dopamine 2. Norepinephrine (NE) –modulation of mood and arousal - cocaine and amphetamine  increased activity of norepinephrine –connected to depression 3. Serotonin - sleep, wakeness, eating, agression – abnormal level depression, obsesive comulsive dissorder 4. GABA (and glycine) - inhibitory transmitter - regulation of anxiety and seizures 5. Endorphins - resemble opiate dtugs in structure and effect – paint relief and pleasurable emotions A – skeletal, attenion, memory arousal D – voluntary movement, schezofrenia, parkinson desiese, cocaine N – mood and arousal, cocaine, depression S – sleep, eat, agression, depression G – inhibitory E – pain, opiate drugs Organization of the nervous system Peripheral nervous system  Made up of nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord  Nerves- axons that are rooted together in the nervous system  Somatic Nervous System (Voluntary) - connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors – two kinds of nerve fibres: 1. Afferent nerve-axons that carry info inward the central nervous system AI 2. Efferent nerve - axons that carry info outward the central nervous system EO  Autonomic Nervous System –connect to heart, blood vessels, glands – controls heart rate, digestion, respiration – two types 1.Sympathetic divison – mobilized (increases) body’s recources for emergencies (fight-or- flight response) ex. Incrreased respiration 2. Parasympathetic division – conserves (decreases) bodily resources ex. Decreased respiration Central nervous system  Made up of brain and spinal cord  Meninges – protects the brain (case)  Ventricles – contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that nurishes the brain and provides it with protective cushion  Spinal Cord - connect brain to the rest of the body throught periferal nervous system – like the brain contains CSF and is protected by meninges – contains bundles of axons that: 1. carry brains commands to periferal nerves 2.relay sensations from from the body to the brain  Brain –coordinaes body’s actions, makes it possible to think, remember and dream Looking inside the brain: research methods  EEG – Device that monitors electrical activity of the brain  Leisoning –- destroying the piece of the brain  ESB – sending weak electrical current into the brain structure to activate it The brain and behaviour  Divided into 3 parts: 1. Hindbrain  Divided into: 1. -Cerebellum – coordinates fine muscle movement, balance 2.- Medulla- responsible for unconscious functions such as breathing, circulation of blood etc – Pons – sleep and arousal 2. Midbrain - Responsible for sensory processes such as vision and hearing – contain dopamines (parkinson disease) – reticular formation – fibres that carry impulse related to sleep and arousal (also runs through hidbrain) 3. Forebrain  Divided into: 1. Thalamus (way station) - all sensory info (except smell) must pass to get to cerebral cortex 2. Hypothalamus (biological needs) – under thalamus – control of autonomic nervous system – hunger, thirst, tempeture control (4 f’s fighting, fleeing, feeding, mating) 3. Limbic System (emotion) – contains: 1. Hippocampus- memory 2. Amygdala- agression (experiment with the rats – pressed the leaver untill they died – experienced pleasure) 4. Cerebrum (thought) – responsible for – thinking emotion, consciousness, memory etc -contains: 1. Cerebral cortex – auter layer of of cerebrum 2. Cerebral hemisphere – left and right halfs of cerebrum 3. Corpus collosum – structure that connects two cerebral hemispheres  Cerebral hemisphere is devided into lobes: Occipital lobe (back of the head) – primary visual cortex (vision) OV Parietal lobe - primary samotosensory cortex (touch) PS Temporal lobe – primary auditory cortex (language, speech) TL Frontal lobe – primary motor cortex (movement) FM 4. Prefrontal cortex – damage results in deficit in planning, paying attention, getting organized  Brain plasticity – brain is fexible (if one part of the brain is damaged some other parts could become responsible for the its functions) Right brain/left brain  Left hemisphere – better at tasks involving verbal processing (reading, writing, speech)  Right hemisphere – better at tasks involving non verbal processing (musical, visual recognition) Endocrine System  Consists of glands that release hormones into the bloodstream that help control bodily functions  Pituitary gland – master gland that regulates other endocrine glands  Negative feedback system – when a certain hormone increases to a certain level, signals are sent to hypothalamus to reduce or stop further release of that hormone  Gonadotropins – regulate the formation of external sexual organs in the developing fetus. Heredity and behaviour  Behavioural genetics- studies the influence of genetics on the behaviour Basic Principles of Genetics  Chromosomes – strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic info – cells contain 46 chromosomes, sex cells contain 23 chromosomes – zygote – the union of sperm and an egg  Genes – kea functional units in hereditary transmission  Homozygous- two in the pair are the same  Heterozygous – two genes in the pair are different  Dominant gene – the gene that will be expressed when the genes are different  Recessive gene – the gene that will be masked when the genes are different  Genotype – persons genetic makeup  Phenotype – the ways in which persons genotype is manifested in observable characteristics  Polygenetic trait – trait that is influences by more than one pair of gene Research Methods  Family Studies - look at hereditary influences by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble each other on a specific trait  Twin studies – look at hereditary influences by examining identical and fraternal twins to see how much they resemble each other on a specific trait 1. Identical twins – emerge from one zygote 2. Fraternal twins – two eggs are fertilized simultaneously by different sperms  Adaption Studies - look at hereditary influences by examining adoptive children and both biological and adoptive parents to see how much they resemble each other on a specific trait Genetic mapping –process of determining the location and chemical sequence of specific gene on specific chromosome Evolutionary bases of behaviour  Fitness – reproductive success of individual organism relative to the average reproductive success of the population  Natural selection – characteristics that ensure survival are passed on to other generation, they come to be selected over time  Mutation – change in the piece of DNA  Adaptation – inherited characteristic that increased in population b/c it helped solve a problem of survival when it emerged  Inclusive fitness – individual’s reproductive success plus the success the individual has on the reproductive success of others SUMMARY OF THE EVOLUTION OF PHSYCHOLOGY (CHAPTER 1) Psychology – psyche, soul Psychology’s parents were philosophy and physiology Psychology became an individual discipline when Wilhelm Wundt established first psychological laboratory in Germany Stanley Hall worked closely with Wundt and made an important contribution to the growth of psychology in America, established first lab in 1883 Structuralism – task of psychology is to analyze it into basic elements and investigate how these elements are related Introspection – self observation of one’s own conscious experience Functionalism – task of psychology is to investigate the function of consciousness rather that its structure Behaviourism – psychology should study only observable behaviour (founded by Watson) Behaviourism stimulus – animal research in psychology Unconscious – contains thoughts and desired that are below the conscious but exert a great influence on behaviour Psychoanalytic theory – tries to explain personality and mental disorders by looking at unconscious (invented by Sigmund Fraud) Skinner – psychology should only study observable behaviour. Worked with rats and pigeons and demonstrated that they tend to repeat responses that lead to positive consequences rather than negative Humanism – emphasises the unique qualities of humans and their potential for personal growth (Maslow and Rogers) Applied psychology – concerned with the everyday, practical problems Clinical psychology – concerned with treatment of psychological disorders Cognitive perspective - human behaviour cannot be fully understood without considering how they think Biological perspective – human behaviour can be explained in term of bodily structures Empiricism – knowledge should acquired thought observation Although cultural heritage is taken for granted it has a huge impact on ones behaviour SQ3R – READ, RECIRE REVIEW Ethnocentrism- tendency to view one’s own group as superior to others Hebb – neuropsychology SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH METHODS (CHAPTER 2) Goals in Research 1. Measure and describe 2. Understand and predict -Hypothesis – tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables - Variables – measurable conditions, events, characters( ie hypothized that psychological arousal would affect the emotion, variables would be psychological arousal and emotion) 3. Application and control – scientists hope that the info they gather will help solve everyday problems, the more we know about the problem, the more control we can exert over it Theory – a set of ideas to explain set of observations Steps in scientific Investigation Theory HypothesisEmpirical Research1.Finding support Hyp.confidence in theory inc. 2. Findings do not support Hyp. revise theory or disregard the theory Step 1 Formulate Hypothesis  translate the theory into testable hypothesis Step 2 Select Research Method and construct the study  method chosen depends on the nature of the question Step 3 Collect the data  Data collection techniques: 1. Direct Observation 2. Questionnaire 3. Interview 4. Psychological test 5. Psychological recording 6. Examination of archival records Step 4 Analyze the data  use statistics to analyze the data Step 5 Report the findings  prepare report, submit to the journal Advantages  Precision, clarity, relative intolerance of error Experimental Research  Experiment – the researcher manipulates the variable under controlled conditions and observes the changes in the second variable as a result  Independent variable- controlled by the researcher to see the effect on the second variable  Dependent variable – variable that is thought to be effected by the independent variable -ie the fertilizer used: independent variable- plant type, dependent variable- growth in height  Control Group – group that does not receive special treatment (important that the groups are alike except for the special treatment, insures that there are no differences except for the special treatment  Extraneous variable – variable other than independent variable that is likely to have an effect on the dependent variable – ie the class experiment – the control group that was not under stress could have written more words b/c the people were all Canadian-born unlike immigrants in the experimental group  Confounding of variables – two variables are linked together that makes it hard to sort out their specific effects  Random assignment – all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group in the study  Variations in designing experiments – can be more than one independent and dependent variable in an experiment  Advantages – easy to draw conclusions based on relationship btw the two variables  Disadvantages –artificial, cant be used in every situation (smoking causes lung cancer – cant make one group smoke and the other not) Descriptive/ Corelational Research  Naturalistic observations- observing behaviour without intervening with the subject advantages – conditions are less artificial than in exp disadvantages hard to make observations without interfering with the subject (participant knows someone is watching and might act differently)  Case Studies – indepth investigation of individual, interviewing, direct observation, examination of records advantages- well suited to investigate certain phenomena such as psychological disorder disc highly subjective, makes it easy to see what one wants to see  Surveys – questionare advantages easy to collect disc unreliable due to lying or wishful thinking  Advantages of descriptive reaserch – can explore methods that cannot be explored in experiments  Dissadvantages – does nnot look at extraneous variables Statistics Mode- most frequent Median – middle Mean – average Variability – how much the scores vary from each other and from the average Standard deriviation – amount of variability in the data Correlation – size indicates strength (from +1.00 to -1.00) , the sign indicates the direction SUMMARY OF THE SENSATION AND PERSEPTION (CHAPTER 4)  Sensation – absorption of energy such as light or sound waves by sensory organs, such as ears and eyes  Perception – organizing the sensory input into something meaningful Psychophysics: basic concepts and issues  Threshold – point between energy levels that do and do not have a detectable effect  Absolute threshold – the minimum amount of stimulation that the organism can detect (stimulus intensity detected 50% of the time)  Just notable difference (JND) – the difference in amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect  Weber’s law – the size of the of JND is constant proportion of the of the size of the initial stimulus (as the stimuli increase, JND becomes larger) you can tell the difference between the 300g and 310 g but cannot with 900g and 910g (Weight) WW  Fetcher’s law – constant increase in stimulus intensity produces smaller and smaller increase in the perceived magnitude of sensation (lighting a lamp in dark room. At first the difference is striking, when the second light bulb is turned on, the room doesn’t appear twice as bright, as you keep turning on the light bulbs the perceived magnitude of sensation decreases (Light) FL  Signal detection theory – detection of stimuli involves sensory processes as well as decision processes, ie motoring the computer screen for the radar signals, there are 4 possible outcomes: 1. Hits – detecting the signal that was there 2. Misses – not detecting the signal that was there 3. False alarms – detecting signal that was not there 4. Correct rejections – not detecting signal that was not there  Subliminal perception – registering sensory input without conscious awareness (limen means threshold so subliminal mean below threshold) experiments: 1. James Vicary placed hidden messages “eat popcorn” in the movie theatre – sales of popcorn increased by more than 50% 2. Showed slides of 2 target persons with positive and negative hidden pictures in each- people had positive and negative attitudes toward the two  Sensory adaptation – gradual decline of sensitivity to prolonged stimulation , with constant exposure to specific odour your sensitivity to it decreases (allows people to ignore the obvious and focus on possible threats to safety) Vision  Light – electromagnetic radiation that travels in wave  Amplitude  Brightness AB  Wavelength  Colour WC  Purity Saturation PS  Ultraviolet spectrum Shorter wavelength US  Infrared spectrum  longer wavelength IL The eye  Serve 2 purposes: 1. Channels light to the neural tissue that receives it, called retina 2 Houses retina, located at t
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.