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Week 10 Notes

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Michael Inzlicht

-WEEK 10 NOTES- CHAPTER 3: An Integration of Processes that Underlie Stereotype Threat  Anxiety and negative stereotype activation are not the only explanation for stereotype threat, involve both cognitive & affective components  Stereotype threat: a concern that one might unintentionally confirm an unwanted belief about one’s group 1) Automatic activation of threat  Stereotype threat can affect thoughts/behaviors outside our awareness  **Study (Steele & Aronson) black students taking intelligence test were more likely to fill fragments like R_C_ with RACE than other words (rice, rock, etc) – this activates stereotypes but it only might lead to stereotype threat if it cues an imbalance b/w concept of group, concept of self & concept of ability domain – “I am a member of blacks, blacks are expected to do poorly at cognitive domain, but I do well in cognitive domain” – stereotype threat will be most experienced in sitn’s w/ most imbalance  People also become more vigilant to signs of threat in their own env. 2) Explicit efforts to manage the situation & one’s response  Stereotype threat increases arousal in a way that can facilitate a dominant response but that dominant response is not always best to reach success  Stereotype threat enhances one’s motivation to do well but effort is not always from controlled processing – arousal or increased drive cues responses in an automatic way, when errors are identified motivation to disconfirm the stereotype can cue more controlled attempts to correct one’s mistake [**Study (Jamieson & Harkson): women P were told it was math related task; was likely to look at distracting cue but was quicker to look at a correct cue to compensate] 3) Decreased working memory  Stereotype threat can increase motivation but decrease performance, especially when it requires complex task  This might be because stereotype threat taxes working mem capacity  Working memory: Short-term memory system involved in control, regulation and active maintenance of a limited amount of info with the task at hand  **Study (Schmader & Johns): women in stereotype threat condition showed reduced working mem capacity and poorer math test performance  Stereotype threat induces distracting thoughts and worries, these internal ruminations tax phonological aspect of the working mem for inner speech & thinking of complex cognitive activities  But stereotype threat does not only affect phonological loop (i.e. – verbal thoughts) but also affect executive functioning in attempts to suppress such thoughts 4) Efforts to regulate thoughts & emotions  people are ego depleted after experiencing stereotype threat  people may suppress their stereotypes and can experience an ironic rebound in activation of these stereotypes later  people may try to suppress negative emotions like appearing anxious under stereotype as well  **Study (Johns et al) – more they tried to supress anxiety, lower their working mem  Neurological function – ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation when experiencing stereotype threat involved w/ emotion regulation 5) Threat depends on the task  Stereotype threat can alter performance depending on the nature of task  A guide for reducing stereotype threat effects on performance 1) Reducing the likelihood that such threatening cognitions get activated in the first place  Structural changes that balance the representation of ppl in diff jobs  Direct retraining of implicit stereotypes  Stereotypes may change over time  Strengthening one’s confidence in a domain 2) Interventions – problem-focussed coping  Figure out how to channel fewer cognitive resources to ineffective emotion-focused coping efforts  Reframing negative feelings in a positive way show better task performance in stereotype threat (anxiety as a challenge, not threat)  Knowing where anxiety comes from Chapter 7: Stereotype Threat Spillover  Stereotype threat spillover: short- and long- term effects in areas unrelated to a source of threat following a negative stereotype  Stress and coping model of stereotype threat 1) Model begins with a person-by-situation interaction – they vary w/ some being threatening or not 2) Stigma-consciousness/group-based rejection-sensitivity: People differ in the extent they are aware & bothered by negative stereotypes about their groups  Each type of threat people experience can vary from each person (ex- how strongly they identify w/ the domains in which their group is negatively stereotyped 3) When an identity-threat appraisal is made people experience involuntary responses such as physiological stress – inc. in arousal, limited working mem, etc & voluntary coping strategies  The more energy is used to manage stereotype threats, the less executive control remains for central performance tasks even after they le
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