3/3/2013 10:22:00 AM
Capgras syndrome – disorder resulting from damage to specific parts of
brain – afflicted person recognizes people in his/her world but denies who
they appear to be – person insists they are well-disguised individuals.
Facial recognition involves 2 systems – cognitive and emotional
appraisal – cognitive – recognize face of individual, emotional –
familiarity triggers emotional warm response. In capgras syndrome –
emotional part is damaged
Neuroimaging techniques – method to examine structure or
function/activation pattern in a living brain
PET scans in past revealed – physical makeup of brain – what’s where,
how is shape and connected, etc. MRI scans – structure of brain, fMRI
scans – which portion of brain is activated while performing certain
In cap syndrome – right side of temporal lobe is damaged – which
further disrupts the amygdala – structure responsible for emotional
evaluation and response, detect –ve stimuli-threat, danger; +ve
stimuli-safety, available rewards.
o Damaged amygdala does not let experience warm sense of
feeling good or safe when looking at familiar face (lack of +ve
Also damage to right prefrontal cortex. Normally prefrontal is active
when required planning or careful analysis (in sleep, prefrontal cortex
is shut, that’s why dreams are senseless and bizarre). Damaged
prefrontal cortex in cap syndrome – less able to keep track of what’s
real or not, sensible or not. (lead to hallucinate father as robot and kill.
Overall, in capgras syndrome –
o damage to amygdala – experience no sense of familiarity
o damage to prefrontal cortex – hallucination, noticing tiny
changes in physical or personality that does not really exist,
skewed perception o Brain must work together – one part needs to store factual
memory, other part analyze visual input, another part compare
input and memory to determine match and last part – produce
emotional response, ALL at once
Study of brain:
- Directly at top of spinal cord.
– Crucial for controlling key life functions, rhythmic heartbeat,
- Body’s overall tone, body posture and balance, brain’s level of
- Largest area of hindbrain – cerebellum
– coordination of bodily movements and balance
– damage to this difficulty in spatial reasoning, discriminating
sounds, understand input from various sensory systems
Midbrain – coordinating movements, skilled precise movements of eyes –
relays auditory info from ears to areas in forebrain to process info
Forebrain – has 4 lobes and 2 fissures:
1. Has a cortex – outer surface of forebrain, crumpled visual features like
wrinkles/ convolution – cover brain’s outer surface.
2. wrinkles has deep valleys/grooves – deepest grove is longitudinal fissure,
running from front to back of brain, separate cerebral hemisphere from right
- 4 lobes are – frontal lobes – from front of brain-right behind forehead
- Central fissure divides frontal lobes from parietal lobes – top part of
- Bottom part is divided by lateral fissure and below lateral fissure are
- At the very back exists, occipital lobes
Subcortical structures: part of forebrain, contains thalamus,
hypothalamus, limbic system and hippocampus.
- Thalamus – relay station for all sensory information going to cortex - Hypothalamus – directly underneath thalamus – controls motivated
behavior such as eating, drinking, sex, etc.
- Limbic system is surrounded by hypo and thalamus - involved in
control of emotional behavior and motivation – learning and memory
- Hippocampus – located underneath cortex in temporal lobe – involved
in creation of long term and spatial memory
Commissures – are thick bundles of fibers that carry info back and forth
between two hemispheres. Largest commissure is corpus collosum – that
links left and right cerebral hemispheres.
Split-brain patient – have both brains halves but communication between
halves is severely limited.
Left hemisphere – language capabilities, right involves spatial judgments
Lesion is specific area of tissue damage,
Damage in hippocampus produces memory problems
Damage in occipital lobe produces issues in vision but nothing in other
Damage to left frontal lobe – disruption in language use but if same
damage on right, not same effect.
Data from neuroimaging – CT, PET, MRI, fMRI, EEG and TMS
Type of scan How/what Results, etc.
CT Scans – study brain’s structure CT and MRI Relatively stable –
computerized axial changes only happen if a injury,
tomography tumor or cancer grows
PET scans – positron study brain’s activity –
emission measures how much glucose
tomography (brain’s fuel) is being used at
specific location – provides
location’s acitivity level at
certain moment MRI – magnetic relies on magnetic properties PET and fMRI high variable –
resonance imaging that make up brain tissues to results depends upon task being
determine the exact colorful done and involved.
structure of brain
fMRI – functional Measures oxygen content in
magnetic resonance blood flowing through each
region of brain – accurately
determine the activity in brain
EEG – Recording of voltage changes Event-related potential – changes
occurring at scalp – reflects in EEG just before, during and
activity in brain underneath after explicit event, measure by