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Psych ch-2.docx

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Dwayne Pare

3/3/2013 10:22:00 AM Psychology ch-2 Capgras syndrome – disorder resulting from damage to specific parts of brain – afflicted person recognizes people in his/her world but denies who they appear to be – person insists they are well-disguised individuals.  Facial recognition involves 2 systems – cognitive and emotional appraisal – cognitive – recognize face of individual, emotional – familiarity triggers emotional warm response. In capgras syndrome – emotional part is damaged Neuroimaging techniques – method to examine structure or function/activation pattern in a living brain  PET scans in past revealed – physical makeup of brain – what’s where, how is shape and connected, etc. MRI scans – structure of brain, fMRI scans – which portion of brain is activated while performing certain activities  In cap syndrome – right side of temporal lobe is damaged – which further disrupts the amygdala – structure responsible for emotional evaluation and response, detect –ve stimuli-threat, danger; +ve stimuli-safety, available rewards. o Damaged amygdala does not let experience warm sense of feeling good or safe when looking at familiar face (lack of +ve stimuli).  Also damage to right prefrontal cortex. Normally prefrontal is active when required planning or careful analysis (in sleep, prefrontal cortex is shut, that’s why dreams are senseless and bizarre). Damaged prefrontal cortex in cap syndrome – less able to keep track of what’s real or not, sensible or not. (lead to hallucinate father as robot and kill.  Overall, in capgras syndrome – o damage to amygdala – experience no sense of familiarity o damage to prefrontal cortex – hallucination, noticing tiny changes in physical or personality that does not really exist, skewed perception o Brain must work together – one part needs to store factual memory, other part analyze visual input, another part compare input and memory to determine match and last part – produce emotional response, ALL at once Study of brain: Hindbrain – - Directly at top of spinal cord. – Crucial for controlling key life functions, rhythmic heartbeat, respiratory regulation. - Body’s overall tone, body posture and balance, brain’s level of alertness. - Largest area of hindbrain – cerebellum – coordination of bodily movements and balance – damage to this difficulty in spatial reasoning, discriminating sounds, understand input from various sensory systems Midbrain – coordinating movements, skilled precise movements of eyes – relays auditory info from ears to areas in forebrain to process info Forebrain – has 4 lobes and 2 fissures: 1. Has a cortex – outer surface of forebrain, crumpled visual features like wrinkles/ convolution – cover brain’s outer surface. 2. wrinkles has deep valleys/grooves – deepest grove is longitudinal fissure, running from front to back of brain, separate cerebral hemisphere from right - 4 lobes are – frontal lobes – from front of brain-right behind forehead - Central fissure divides frontal lobes from parietal lobes – top part of brain. - Bottom part is divided by lateral fissure and below lateral fissure are temporal lobes - At the very back exists, occipital lobes Subcortical structures: part of forebrain, contains thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system and hippocampus. - Thalamus – relay station for all sensory information going to cortex - Hypothalamus – directly underneath thalamus – controls motivated behavior such as eating, drinking, sex, etc. - Limbic system is surrounded by hypo and thalamus - involved in control of emotional behavior and motivation – learning and memory - Hippocampus – located underneath cortex in temporal lobe – involved in creation of long term and spatial memory Lateralization – Commissures – are thick bundles of fibers that carry info back and forth between two hemispheres. Largest commissure is corpus collosum – that links left and right cerebral hemispheres. Split-brain patient – have both brains halves but communication between halves is severely limited. Left hemisphere – language capabilities, right involves spatial judgments Data – Lesion is specific area of tissue damage, Damage in hippocampus produces memory problems Damage in occipital lobe produces issues in vision but nothing in other sensory information. Damage to left frontal lobe – disruption in language use but if same damage on right, not same effect. Data from neuroimaging – CT, PET, MRI, fMRI, EEG and TMS Type of scan How/what Results, etc. CT Scans – study brain’s structure CT and MRI Relatively stable – computerized axial changes only happen if a injury, tomography tumor or cancer grows PET scans – positron study brain’s activity – emission measures how much glucose tomography (brain’s fuel) is being used at specific location – provides location’s acitivity level at certain moment MRI – magnetic relies on magnetic properties PET and fMRI high variable – resonance imaging that make up brain tissues to results depends upon task being determine the exact colorful done and involved. structure of brain fMRI – functional Measures oxygen content in magnetic resonance blood flowing through each region of brain – accurately determine the activity in brain region EEG – Recording of voltage changes Event-related potential – changes occurring at scalp – reflects in EEG just before, during and activity in brain underneath after explicit event, measure by
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