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Chapter 11

PSYA02 Chapter 11 Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Joordens, Steve

Chapter 11 Developmental psychology: is the study of continuity and change across the life span Zygote: is a fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg  Ultimately become: gender.  Egg is fertilized by a sperm that carries a Y chromosome, then the zygote is male;  if the egg is fertilized by a sperm that carries an X chromosome, the zygote is female germinal stage 2-week period that begins at conception  zygote migrates back down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the wall of the uterus. embryonic stage is a period that lasts from the second week until about the eighth week  Without testosterone, the embryo continues developing as a female fetal stage is a period that lasts from the ninth week until birth  undergoes a process called myelination, which is the formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron Underdeveloped brains:  human brain has nearly tripled in size in just 2 million years of evolution, and bigger brains require bigger heads to house them  one of our species’ greatest talents is its ability to adapt:  to a wide range of novel environments that differ in terms of climate  social structure allows us to be exceptionally adaptable  placenta is the organ that physically links the bloodstreams of the mother and the developing embryo or fetus and permits the exchange of materials teratogens Agents that damage the process of development Fetal alcohol syndrome is a developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy  embryo is more vulnerable to teratogens than is the fetus Infancy is the stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months Motor development is the emergence of the ability to execute physical actions Reflexes, which are specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation Cephalocaudal rule (or the ―top-to-bottom‖ rule), which describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet gain control over their heads first, their arms and trunks next, and their legs last Proximodistal rule: (or the ―inside-to-outside‖ rule), which describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery  learn to control their elbows and knees before their hands and feet cognitive development: which is the emergence of the ability to think and understand Four stages  sensorimotor stage: is a stage of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy o ability to sense and their ability to move to acquire information o schemas: which are theories about or models of the way the world works Preoperational Child acquires motor skills but does not understand conservation of physical properties. Child begins this stage by thinking egocentrically but ends with a basic understanding of other minds. Assimilation: which occurs when infants apply their schemas in novel situations Concrete operational Child can think logically about physical objects and events and understands conservation of physical properties Accommodation: which occurs when infants revise their schemas in light of new information.  Formal operational Child can think logically about abstract propositions and hypotheticals. Object permanence: which is the idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible  Infants do not have 2-month-old infant will track a moving object with her eyes  Once the object leaves her visual field, she will not search for it Childhood: which is the stage of development that begins at about 18 to 24 months and lasts until adolescence, which begins between 11 and 14 years Two stages Preoperational stage: which is the stage of development that begins at about 2 years and ends at about 6 years learns about physical or ―concrete‖ objects Concrete operational stage, which is the stage of development that begins at about 6 years and ends at about 11 years  Learns how various actions or ―operations‖ can affect or transform those objects  Quantity is a property of a set of concrete objects that does not change when an operation  spreading out alters the set’s appearance Conservation: which is the notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object’s appearance  Preoperational children don’t make this distinction so easily.  develop into the concrete operational stage, they begin to realize that the way the world appears is not necessarily the way the world really is can  begin to understand that some operations change what an object looks like without changing what the object is like. Formal operational stage: the stage of development that begins around the age of 11 and lasts through adulthood  solve nonphysical problems with similar ease ability to generate, consider, reason about, or otherwise operate on abstract objects is the hallmark of formal operations Egocentrism is the failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers  very young children (who cannot understand that others have different perceptions or beliefs) seem to understand that other people have different desires  children come to understand that because they and others have different knowledge, they and others may also experience different emotions in the same situation THEORY OF MIND => the idea that human behavior is guided by mental representations Autism kids typically have difficulty communicating with other people and making friends  have difficulty understanding the inner life of other people Deaf children whose parents do not know sign language slow to learn to communicate influenced by a variety of factors  such as the number of siblings the child has  the frequency with which the child engages in pretend play  whether the child has an imaginary companion,  socioeconomic status of the child’s family language seems to be the most important Piaget thought that children graduated from one stage to another Children acquire many of the abilities that Piaget described much earlier than he realized Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky believed  cognitive development was largely the result of the child’s interaction with members of his or her own culture rather than his or her interaction with concrete objects ability to learn from others depends on three fundamental skills that they acquire early on  Older infants are not following the adult’s head movements, but rather, they are following her gaze—trying to see what they think she is seeing. The ability to focus on what another person is focused on is known as joint attention ability to use another person’s reactions as information about the world is known as social referencing  Rather, the infant will perform the intended action by removing the lid (Meltzoff, 1995).  The ability to do what another person does—or what another person meant to do—is known as imitation They do things that cause their caregivers to stay close to them. When a baby cries, gurgles, coos, makes eye contact, or smiles, most adults reflexively move toward the baby Bowlby claimed that this is why the baby emits these ―come hither‖ signals. Bowlby suggested, are predisposed to form an attachment—that is, an emotional bond—with a primary caregiver Strange situation, which is a behavioral test used to determine a child’s attachment Four attachment styles  Secure attachment style infants who had been distressed by the caregiver’s absence go to her and are calmed by her proximity,  avoidant meaning that they are generally not distressed when their caregiver leaves the room  ambivalent meaning that they are almost always distressed when their caregiver leaves the room  disorganized attachment style, with no consistent pattern of responses when their caregiver leaves or returns. o infants with a secure attachment style act as though they are certain that their primary caregiver will respond when they feel insecure o infants with an avoidant attachment style act as though they ar
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