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Chapter 9

PSY100 Chapter 9

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman

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Chapter 9 - Motivation and Emotion Motivation: factors that energize, direct, or sustain behaviour • Motivation states are… • Energizing- activate/arouse behaviour ex: desire for fitness go to gym • Directive- guide behaviours toward satisfying specific goals or needs ex: hunger motivates eating • Persistent- people persist until goals met, needs satisfied • Motives differ in strength- depending on internal/external factors Need: state of deficiency, which can either be biological (water) or social (need to belong to a group)  goal directed behaviours Maslow “need theory” of motivation (fig. 9.2) • Humans are driven by many needs need hierarchy • Base: survival needs – need to be satisfied first • Top: personal growth/self-actualization • Supports humanistic theory- people strive toward personal fulfillment, continually trying to improve ourselves Self-actualization: a state that is achieved when one’s personal dreams and aspiration have been attained Limitation to hierarchy- protestors that starve themselves for their personal beliefs Needs Arousal drive behaviour Arousal: psychological activation Drives: psychological states that encourage behaviours that satisfy needs • Cannon- homeostasis • Hull- a drive increased in proportion to the amount of depreciation (hungrier you are, more driven you are to find food) • Any behaviour that continually reduces a drive becomes a habit Incentives: external objects or goals that motivate behaviours, don’t satisfy biological needs Ex: getting a good grade, eating extra piece of pie already full • Subliminal cues can affect our incentives (watching smoker on TV want to smoke) Yerkes-Dodson Law • Inverted U theory, optimal level of arousal for performance Freud- Pleasure Principle • People seek pleasure (hedonism), try to avoid pain • Don’t always engage in behaviours to seek biological needs • Evolutionary significance: sweet= pleasurable, also protective as bitter things such as flowers, toxins, etc. often poisonous Extrinsic motivation: motivation to perform activity because of external goals Intrinsic motivation: motivation to perform an activity because of the value of pleasure associated with that activity • Help satisfy our natural curiosity and creativity Vallerand- behaviorus that satisfy needs for competence, autonomy, relatedness • If activities consistent with how people see themselves enjoyment, passion shape personal identity • Extrinsic rewards can interfere with instrinsic motivation • Lepper- give kids markers, rewarded group less likely to colour during free-play when not rewarded anymore Psychological reactance: motivational state that arises when our feelings of personal freedom are threatened Try to regain freedom, obtain whatever is being withheld Ex: something that you can’t have, you want more Self-determination theory • People are motivated to satisfy needs for competence, autonomy (sense of personal control) and relatedness • Extrinsic rewards might reduce intrinsic value- people no longer doing it for themselves (autonomy, competence) • Self-perception theory (Bem)- people seldom are aware of their specific motivates and instead draw inferences about their motivations according to what seems to make the most sense Ex: Henry Murray- proposed 27 basic psychosocial needs including needs for power, autonomy, achievement and play • People are especially motivated to achieve personal goals= self-regulation Bandura- people’s personal expectations for success influence motivation • Self-efficacy: expectancy that your efforts will lead to success • ↑ self-efficacy- more motivated you are to do something well (↑achievement motivation) Delayed gratification: process of transcending immediate temptations to achieve long term goals (eating 1 marshmallow right away or waiting a bit, getting 2) • Mischel study- children that were able to delay gratification at age 4 more socially competent, better able to handle stress, ↑SAT scores • Delayed gratification strategies turning hot cognitions (pleasurable) into cold ones • Mentally transforming tempting pretzel log Baumeister & Leary- need to belong theory • Need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes (help us live longer, avoid illness) • Mechanisms that detect group exclusion ex: sense that we’re being kicked out of group feel anxious Schachter study • Manipulated anxiety levels (told they would be administered painful shock vs. tickle) and then measured how much participants preferred to be around others • Those who were told painful shock (↑anxiety) more likely to want to wait with others, especially those who were also being administered shock • Social comparison theory: we compare ourselves to others around us, to test and validate our personal beliefs and emotional responses What determines what we eat? 1. Time- we eat not because deficient E stores but because we have been classically conditioned to associated eating with regular mealtimes • Clock= CS anticipatory responses that motivate eating behaviour, ↑insulin promotes glucose use, ↑short term hunger signals 2. Variety of food- eat more when ↑variety of food vs. 1 type • Sensory-specific satiety- animals will stop eating relatively quickly if they have just one food to wat, but will eat more if presented with a different type of food • ↑ activity in frontal lobe regions associated with assessing food reward value 3. Culture • Familiarity determines food preferences (eating it as kid, seeing parents eat it) • Neophobia- fear or new things/ new foods • Cultural preferences, religious/cultural values (Kosher, Muslim) Neural Processes involved in controlling eating • Hypothalamus: structure that most influences eating • Damaged to hypothalamus obesity • Damaging middle/ventromedial region of hypothalamus (VMH) causes rats to eat ↑ food= hyperphagia obesity • Damaged to outer/lateral area of hypothalamus (LH)  ↓ eating behaviour= aphagia • Regions of prefrontal cortex process taste cues such as sweet and saltiness • Limbic system- process info about food’s reward potential, region activated when craving a particular food • Damage to limbic system- Gourmand syndrome (people become obsessed with fine food and food preparation, not necessarily obese) Internal sensations- where do hunger signals come from? Glucostatic Theory: blood glucose levels constantly being monitored as glucose primary fuel for metabolism and neuronal activity sensitivity to ↓glucose levels=hunger Lipostatic Theory: set point for body fat, always try to return to homeostasis Leptin: involved in fat regulation, released from fat cells as more fat is stored (LT)  stop eating ST effects- also influences food’s reward properties Ghrelin: triggers eating (levels surge before meals), decrease after Biological Factors Influence Sexual Behaviour • Kinsey- greatest influence • Masters & Johnson- sexual response cycle 1. Excitement 2. Plateau 3. Orgasm 4. Resolution Hormones profoundly influence sexual activity • Influence physical development of brain and body (puberty secondary sexual characteristics) • Hormones influence sexual behaviour through motivation • Testosterone- involved in sexual functioning (availability more important than quantity) • Oxytocin- released during sexual arousal and orgasm Hormones regulated by hypothalamus- most important region for stimulating sexual behaviour NT • Dopamine receptors involved in pleasure response • Serotonin ↓ levels of sexual interest (depressed people on meds) • Nitric Oxide- result of sexual stimulation, which promotes blood flow to penis and clitoris, plays important role in sexual arousal Variations in menstrual cycle • Male hormones release at same rate • Female hormones released in accordance with menstrual cycle • Studies show that women evaluate men differently across the menstrual cycle • During ovulation, prefer men with more masculine faces Sexual scripts • Cognitive beliefs about how a sexual episode should be enacted (men should make first move, flirting, sequence of sexual acts, whether women should resist etc.) • Scripts differ in many places in the world Double Standards • Certain activities (premarital or casual sex) are morally and socially acceptable for men but not for women Sex difference in sexual motives • Men have higher levels of sexual motivation than women Buss’s sexual strategies theory • Differences in sexual motivation due to different adaptive problems face through human history • Women prioritize intensive care of small number of infants • For men- all matings have a reproductive payoff, few personal costs • Study with 96 university students approached by stranger of opposite sex • Both sexes equally likely to accept date • Men much more likely (3/4 vs. 0) to agree to have sex/ go home with stranger • Baumeister- erotic plasticity: extent that sex drive can be shaped by social, cultural and situational factors • Women have higher erotic plasticity than men, her sexuality may evolve and change through adult life vs. men- desires remain relatively constant Mating strategies differences between sexes • In general, men and women seek same things in their mates • Men place more emphasis on physical attractiveness, women more concerned with status, financial stability Homosexuality • Evolutionary theory: lesbians and gays act as “spare” parents to their sibling’s offspring (caring aunts and uncles), still ensure continuation of family genes • Levels of circulating hormones do not differ between heterosexual and homosexual individuals • Best evidence suggest exposure to hormones, especially androgens in parental environment might play some role in sexual orientation • Females, mother’s med condition causes ↑ levels of androgen (testosterone) to be expressed by dad more likely to become lesbian • No specific genes for sexual orientation • Twin studies reveal some evidence of genetic component especially in males • Conclusion: not causal evidence, all correlational evidence accumulated consistent with idea that biological processes play some role in sexual orientation Bem study- proposed that feeling different from opposite or same-sex peers predicts later sexual orientation, believes that people are attra
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