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Chapter 5

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Dan Dolderman

Sense: Sensation: • Sense organ’s response to external stimulus • Transmission these response to brain • Main function: detect Perception: • Process, organize and interpreted sensory signal • Main function: construct useful and meaningful information Sensory coding: • Transfer stimulus’s physical properties into neutral impulses Transduction: • A process – sensory receptor produce neural impulses • When receive physical or chemical stimulation • Thalamus: most sensory info will goes through -> send info to cortex -> dissolve as taste, smell, touch, hearing, vision Sense Stimuli Receptor Brain path Taste Fluid on the tongue Taste buds Glossph... & vagus nerve Smell Fluid on mucous Mucous membrane Olfactory nerve membranes in the + olfactory nose Toch Pressure on skin Touch nervous skin Trigeminal nerve – touch above neck Spinal nerve - touch other places Hearing Sound waves Sensitive hair cells Auditory nerve Vision Light waves Sensitive rods & Optic nerve cones Psychophysics relate to Stimulus: • Sensory thresholds: o Absolute threshold: minimum intensity stimulation that must occur -> can experience sensation o Different threshold = just noticeable difference between 2 stimulation  Minimum amount change require to notice different  Weber’s law: Just noticeable different based on proportion of original stimulus than on a fixed amount of different o Signal detection theory  Detection of a faint stimulus require a judgement  It is NOT an all – or - none process o Sensory adaption: decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation  Ex: construction noise close to your study – after few minute you ignore it  But if it stop – you will notice b/c sensory system response again Taste: • Gustation: sense of taste • Taste buds: sensor receptor – transfer taste info. o Have 500 – 1000 taste buds • Pass through thamalus • Brain: glossph.. , vagus and cranial nerve • 5 taste: sweet, sour, bitter, salt, and umami (yummy) • Monosodium glutamate – enhance favour for food – some experience headaches after consume Smell: • Olfaction: o sense of smell o Occur when receptor in the nose respond to chemical • Olfactory epithelium: o Thin layer of tissue o Within nasal cavity o Embedded with smell receptor • Olfactory bulb: o Brain centre of smell o Contain olfactory nerve o In frontal lobes (which also location of memory) o Smell goes direct to brain sensor, NO thamalus o Decrease sensor of smell -> increase mental risk Touch • Haptic sense: sense of touch • Tactile stimulation: rise to an integrated experience of touch • Goes to thamalus • Trigeminal nerve above neck • Spinal & cranial nerve other’s parts • 2 types of pains o Fast fibres: sharp & immediate pain - produce myelination (speed up neural signal) -> spinal core  Physical pressure & temperature extremes o Slow fibres : chronic , steady pain – Non – myelination  Chemical changes in tissue • Gate control theory of pain o Pain receptor must activate o Spinal cord must allow signal goes through brain - CAN close gate by firing larger sensory nerve fibres • Pain process in same area with fear, anxiety Hearing: • Audition: sound perception • Sound wave: pattern of the changes in air pressure -> result in percept of sound o Amplitude determined it’s loudness o Wave frequent determined it’s pitch (hz) – 20-20,000 Hz • Outer-ear: collect sound wave • Middle ear: o Eardrum : thin membrane , sound wave vibrate o Ossicles: hammer, anvil, stirrup • Inner Ear: oval window o Hair cell contain receptor cell
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