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Chapter 1

PSYC18 Chapter 1 Textbook Notes.docx

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Heinz- Bernhard Kraatz

Chapter 1: Approaches to Understanding Emotions My abbreviations • E = emotion, psy = psychology, R = relationship, dev = development, conc’n = concentration, mot’n = motivation, bc = because, ppl = people, exp = experience, +ve = positive, -ve = negative, w/ = with, w/o = without, btwn = between, recog = recognize, eval = evalutation, behv = behaviour, exp’t = experiment, expt’l = experimental, diff = different, ~ = the nearest heading, obs = observations, pt = participant,  = correlated with, lang = language, comm. = communication, evol = evolution, fxn = function, sol’n = solution, imp = important, percep = perception, cog = cognition, individ = individual, ANS = Autonomic Nervous System, sym ANS = sympathetic ANS, parasym ANS = parasympathetic ANS, sci = science/scientific, ACC = Anterior Cingulate Cortex, PCC = Posterior Cingulate Cortex, org = organization, coord = coordination, mech = mechanism, rxn = reaction, physio = physiology/physiological, def’n = definition, bio = biology/biological • Bolded terms are things I thought were important/def’ns/names of theorists/things that I thought I would have a harder time remembering Intro  • In the past, great thinkers have assumed E’s are base and destructive • Modern views are that E’s serve imp fxns, especially social ones • E = a psych state or process that mediates between our concerns/goals and the events of our world • Sylvan Tomkins: “at any one time, an E gives priority to one concern over others”, giving it concern urgency • E’s are locally rational (= their rationality does not range over all possible concerns but they help us deal adaptively to concerns in our current context) o Local to the concern that has achieved priority and the E makes it urgent • E’s are the source of our values (i.e. what we love, what we hate) • E’s also help us form and engage in R’s o Although E’s occur individually, most E’s involve others (and thus, they mediate our R’s) • Until recently, E research was focused on: o percep of facial expressions o Physio response o Individual’s response to q’s about his/her own exp • Now, moving towards: E’s that happen btwn us and others • The interpersonal equivalent of an E giving priority to a specific concern over others = commitment to that person (we make the other’s concerns our own) o i.e. love, cooperation between soliers • anger is committed to solving the problem or ending an relationship if it cannot be History of E: 19 Century Founders • modern ideas of E are bc of: o 1) Darwin, 2) William James, 3) Freud 1) Charles Darwin: Evolutionary Approach • “our descent is the origin of our evil passions, the Devil under form of baboon is our grandfather!” • One of the first researchers to use questionnaires and photos of naturalistic and posed E’s • Did not propose that E’s have fxns imp to our survival • Before ~, ppl thought God had given humans special facial muscles so they could express uniquely human sentiments • Darwin asked 2 broad questions that still guide E research: o 1) How are E’s expressed in humans and other animals? o 2)Origin of our E’s? • He answered 1) by listing expressions, the body systems responsible, and the relevant E o i.e. Blushing  Blood vessels  Shame • He answered 2) by saying that E expressions derive largely from habits that in our evol or individ past had once been useful o Therefore, emotional expressions are based on reflex-like mechanisms (involuntary and may or may not be obsolete now) • Overall, he felt E’s were about as useful as the appendix (fxn’l in a distant ancestor but no longer. i.e. baring your teeth used to be to prepare to bite) • ~ said our E’s link us to our past (our distant past as in our ancestors, but also our own infancy) • He provided descriptions of E’s and argued their universality • Despite his reservations, he still saw some useful fxn (i.e. their social value) • ~ saw the importance for cross-cultural study • Also one of the first to contribute to dev psych (documented his own son’s E and cog dev) 2) William James: The Physiological Approach • 1890 book: The Principles of Psy, he wrote “bodily changes follow directly the perception f the exciting fact...and feeling of the same changes as they occur is the E” • ~ argued against the common sense notion that stimulus  E  action • Rather, he thought: perceive stimulus  physio (including action)  perceiving physio (as an E) o = James-Lange Theory (Carl Lange independently published the same idea) • “the core of an E is the pattern of bodily responses” = embodied experience o f E = changes of ANS as well as movements of muscles and joints • ~ prompted the modern interest in physio of E • E’s give “color and warmth” to exp and w/o them, everything would be pale o Therefore, E’s are the rose-coloured glasses of life and thus they affect our perceps and judgements 3)Sigmund Freud: Psychotherapeutic Approach • His patient Katharina (one of ~’s early case studies), suffered from panic attacks and felt suffocated. On this topic, ~ wrote “certain events can be so damaging that they leave E’al scars that can shape the rest of our lives” • Was one of the first to argue that E’s are at the core of many mental illnesses • Like Darwin, though E’s could derive from past (patient’s early life) • ~’s work links to Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment (1951) o = emotional life in adulthood derives from earlier relationships (particular mother- infant). This theory is arguably the most important in 20 century E research) • ~’s theories also influenced Lazarus (1991) o Lazarus combined ~ + Darwin to propose that E’s derive from how we eval events in the enviro in relation to our goals (i.e. to serve an adaptive purpose) Philosophical and Literary Approaches Aristotle: Ethics of E’s st • 384-322 B.C. = some of the 1 analysis of E • “though ppl assume E’s happen outside our control, they actually depend on our inner beliefs” o therefore, in a way, we are responsible for our E’s (bc we are responsible for our beliefs) • book: Rhetoric: diff judgements  diff E’s. Spoke of “The coy side of E’s” o Shakespeare’s Hamlet: “There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so” o Ex. Waiting in line at cinema and touched lightly by someone (if you think it is your date  affection, if you think it is a stranger who might mean you harm  fear) nd • 2 book: Poetics: our actions have unforeseen consequences and this is the root of human tragedy. We are responsible for our actions. o Noticed 2 effects of tragedy narratives: o 1) ppl are moved emotionally o 2) katharsis: (does not mean purge/purifcaiton, as if one reads sad stories to rid oneself of toxic E’s. This is a mistranslation.). rather, ~ meant clarification: clearing away obstacles to understanding so that we can understand our world and the human condition more fully • Not long after ~’s death, 2 schools of philosophy, both in Athens around 300 B.C, and the founders were both the first E researchers in the West. Both are philosophies about ethics. : o 1) Epicureanism  Devoted to the pursuit of pleasure  Dev’d ideas of human sociality that influenced the American and French Revolutions. “a right to the pursuit of happiness” and the idea of living naturally, in harmony with the environment  Live simply, enjoy simple pleasures rather than chasing irrational desires (wealth, fame) bc this could lead to painful E’s  Living for moderate pleasure is the main goal o 2) Stoicism  stoa = colonnade (columns, a bit like a cloister)  the dictionary meaning of stoic (indifferent to pleasure/pain) is relevant but not exactly what this is about  ideas influenced acceptance of Christianity by Romans  was more radical than 1)  thought since E’s derive from desires, and ‘bad desires’ like lust should be disciplined out of us (i.e. by religion). Basically origin of the 7 deadly sins  living for rationality is the main goal o These two were thought to be the only two real choices to life o Both thought of philosophy as a cure for the soul and felt E’s were the source of the soul’s diseases Rene Descartes: Philosophy • Holland, 1600s • ~ = founder of modern philosophy and a sci view of the world • Book: The Passions of the Soul: sensory, motor nerves, relexes, memory • E’s used to be called passions • ~ said 6 main E’s: wonder, joy, desire, love, hatred, sadness • Said they occur in the “thinking aspect of ourselves” which he called the soul • But at the same time, “connected to our bodies” • Differentiated E’s from perceps (of external + internal stimuli) • “E’s are perceps of what is imp to the soul” • Said E’s cannot be entirely self-controlled, but they can be regulated by true thoughts (=rationality). Thus he agreed w/ Aristotle that judgements  E’s st • ~ = one of the 1 to argue that E’s are not useless and actually do serve imp fxns o But agreed they can be dysfxnl bc they cause us to dwell and feel too strongly (i.e. irrational unrequited love, being sad about it when you can’t change things) • Hippocrates + Galen: spoke of disease being caused by imbalance of the 4 humors: o Sanguine = blood = hope/vigor o Phlegmatic = placidity o Choleric = yellow bile = anger o Melancholy = black bile = sad • ~ pulled away from this theory of humor (I was so tempted to make a pun right there. I’m totally just going to do it. He pulled away from this....humorous theory ahahahahahha. Sorry not sorry. But, good luck whoever’s reading this!) George Elliot: Arts • Virginia Woolf  stream of consc
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