Textbook Notes (363,442)
Canada (158,371)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY100H1 (1,804)

Psychology is an Empirical Science II.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Ashley W.Denton

Psychology is an Empirical Science II • Psychological disorder & treatments o Evidence-based assessment à co-morbidity (overlap) o Evidence-based treatment à effective through research & empirical evidence • Treatment o Psychotherapy: formal psychological treatment; interaction between practitioner & client (finding the right therapist); causes don’t necessarily lead to more effective treatment o Techniques  Psychodynamic therapy (Freud): psychoanalysis, free association, dream analysis • Feel free and run with their thoughts à find unconscious conflict • = increase patient’s understanding of their own psychological processes • Costy, takes a lot of time  *Client-centered therapy (Rogers): safe & comfortable setting, empathy, reflective listening (repeat what they said) • Encouragement of personal growth through self-understanding  Cognitive therapy: modify maladaptive thought patterns à cognitive restructuring  Biological Treatments (Psychotropic medications): drugs that affect mental process • Anti-anxiety: short-term for anxiety à inc GABA (major inhibitory); make people drowsy & are addictive • Anti-depressants: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors à inc serotonin • Antipsychotics (neuroleptics): block dopamine; reduce positive symptoms of Schizophrenia • Anxiety Disorder o Phobic disorder: behavioral techniques (unlearn the behaviors we have)  Systematic desensitization therapy • fear hierarchy: least fearful to most fearful • relaxation training: how to deal with the negative feelings • exposure therapy: expose the person to the things he/she is afraid of (doable, imagination, virtual exposure) o Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): extremely effective; incorporates techniques from both cognitive & behavioral, correct faulty thinking and change maladaptive behavior  OCD: exposing them to triggers and preventing them from engaging in the obsessive behavior  Panic attack: when people have panic attacks they feel like they are going to die • Mood Disorder o Depression: no best way; under-activity in the left pre-frontal side of the brain  Antidepressants: short term effects  Cognitive-behavioral therapy: long term treatment  Combination of the two works best  Alternatives: exercise, phototherapy, • electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): administering a strong electrical current to patients brain [whole brain] • trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TCM): creates electrical current in the brain region directly below the coil [specific area] • deep brain stimulation: implanting electrodes within parts of the brain [specific]; helpful for people with OCD o Bipolar disorder  Lithium (mania): what it does to the brain is not known; people feel good when they are in the manic state so getting them to take medication can be challenging  Combination more effective o Schizophrenia: pharmacological treatments are most effective  Anti-psychotics haloperidol & chlorpromazine revolutionized treatment • Little or no effect on negative symptoms • Side effect à tardive dyskinesia: lose control to different parts of the body  Clozapine: acts on numerous neurotransmitter receptors, treats negative symptoms, no motor impairment • WBC count went down • Second generation neuroleptics reduce the low count of WBC  Social skill training: teaching them how to interact  Intensive form of CBT • Personality Disorder: notoriously difficult to treat o Borderline: impulsive, emotional, identity  Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT): work on troublesome behaviors and replacing them, helping them deal with their emotions, building self-respect o Anti-social: charming, don’t care about consequences, manipulative  Problem: charm & manipulate therapist  Behaviors seem to drop off after some age  Prognosis: conduct disorder in childhood could lead toAPT • Childhood Disorders o Autism: treatment depends of severity  Applied behavioral analysis (ABA): intensive; based on operant conditioning • Huge time commitment à 40hrs/week; emotionally & financially draining; when done right can have big results • Identify reinforcements & target on specific skills o ADHD: could grow out or persist; brain is under-active so to compensate for that they engage in hyper active behaviors  Ritalin (methylphenidate): stimulant (), decrease over-activity & increase attention  Sleep problems, loss of appetite  Medication slightly increases positive behaviors but significantly decreases negative ones • Power of Positivity o Laughter: a really good medicine  Reduces pain & stress, increases blood flow, improves mood, connects us to others  Tends to be social, spontaneous & contagious o Positive psychology: recent subfield of psychology that focuses on understanding the psychology of well-being & examining the factors that help people thrive  Happiness has 3 components • Positive emotion & pleasure • Engagement in life • Ameaningful life  Happy, optimistic people tend to be healthier o Intelligence: human ability to use knowledge, solve problems, understand complex ideas, learn quickly & adapt to environmental challenges; numerous approaches to studying it; has numerous components  Assessment • Psychometric approach o Achievement (final exams) vs aptitude test (SAT) • Cognitive approach o Examining mental abilities that underlie intelligence (reaction time, working memory capacity) • Biological approach o How the brain processes information  Intelligence Quotient (IQ): are valid; score on a normed test of intelligence (score is compared to other people); the average is set to 100 with SD of 15  Types • General Intelligence (g): one general factor that underlies all mental abilities • Cattell: 2 types of intelligence that are also related; aging = Fluid decreases & crystallized remains intact o Fluid Intelligence: process information rapidly; quick & flexible à working memory o Cystallized intelligence: knowledge acquired through experience & ability to use it to solve problems • Howard Gardner: different types of independent intelligences (no evidence for it) o Musical, bodily-kinesthetic, linguistic, mathematical, visual/spatial, intra-personal, inter-personal (with others) • Stemberg: 3 types of intelligence o Analytical: score on aptitude test (book smarts) o Creative: thinking flexibly (outside the box) o Practical: in daily life (street smarts)  Emotional intelligence (EQ): social intelligence that emphasizes the ability to manage one’s emotions, recognize emotions in others . . .  Personality: characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, behaviors that are relatively stable • Idiographic approach: person-centered, focus on individual lives o Case studies: interviews, biographical information o Narratives: life story, personal myths • Nomothetic approach: common traits, unique combinations o Projective measures: Rorchach inkblot, TAT o Objective measures: self-reports, observer ratings  The ten item personality inventory (TIPI) • Somebody else who knows us for a long time across a wide range of circumstances knows us best. o They might pay more attention o They are less prone to biases • Stability: fluctuate most in childhood; high stability after age 50 o As people age they become  Less neurotic, less extroverted & less open to new experiences  More agreeable & conscientious Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence (Pages 366 – 385) • Intelligence: ability to use knowledge, solve problems, understand complex ideas, learn quickly & adapt to environmental challenges • Francis Galton: intelligence is related to the speed of neural responses & the sensitivity of sensory/perceptual systems. Quicker response & keener perception = smarter • Understanding intelligence o Psychometric approach: how people perform on standardized achievement tests  Binet-Simon scale  Mental age: assessment of a child’s intellectual standing relative to that of his/her peers  William Stern: Intelligence Quotient = mental age/chronological age *100 • The formula is a bit different for adults • The mean is set to be 100 • Miller’sAnalogy test • Only predict 25% of variation in performance • It may be important but it is among other factors that contribute to success  General intelligence (g): one general factor underlies all mental abilities • Raymond Cattell: Fluid vs Crystallized intelligence • Howard Gardner: multiple intelligences à different kinds of intellectual talents that are independent from one another; people can be deficient in some domain & outstanding in another • Robert Sternberg: Analytical intelligence (measured by psychometric tests), Creative intelligence (ability to gain insight), Practical intelligence (dealing with everyday tasks) • Emotional Intelligence (EQ): form of social intelligence that emphasizes the ability to perceive, understand, manage & use emotions; has strong genetic component • Importance o Low g = early death o More education = long levity (independent of IQ) o More g = more literate about health issues o Allows people to adapt quickly o Cognitive approach: mental abilities that allow people to operate intelligently  Speed of mental processing: reaction time, inspection time tests; evidence = measuring electrical activity  Working memory & intelligences = attention  Volume or neuronal cell bodies in the frontal lobe & other parts of the brain that support attentional control is related to fluid intelligence but not crystallized  Kim Peek: a savant who was born with enlarged head & many brain anomalies (missing corpus callosum) o Biological approach: how the brain processes information  Behavioral genetics: using twin & adoption studies; receiving a social multiplier  Nutrition, pre-natal & post-natal factors, schooling; enriched environments enhance learning & memory  Flynn effect: rise in IQ scores [reasons: more education than the preceding generation, better nutrition, better health care]  There is no smarter sex. Females tend to have an advantage on measures of writing & language; males tend to score higher on some standardized tests of math aptitude & of visuospatial processing  Genes don’t cause differences between races  Minority groups that are the targets of discrimination have lower scores on average. [Poor treatment makes them pessimistic about their chances of success]  Stereotype threat: apprehension about confirming negative stereotypes related to one’s own group. à distraction & anxiety; reduction of capacity of short-term memory & undermining confidence & motivation  Group differences can be altered by inducing or removing the threat posed by societal stereotypes Chapter 10: The Health and Wellbeing (Pages 468 – 477) • Components of being happy o Positive emotion & pleasure o Engagement in life o Meaningful life • Positive emotions can predict better health* • Social interaction is beneficiary for physical & mental health • Social integration: quality of social relationships • Buffering hypothesis: the idea that other people can provide direct support in helping individuals cope with stressful events • Emotional disclosure: writing or talking about emotional events can help us better understand the experiences & can move on from them • Marriage: is good for health as long as it’s a good one & has positive effects o More effective for husbands than wives o Less mortality rate for married o Similar measures on self & partner reports of quality of relationship & variety of physiological measures that are indicators of health were found in all (heterosexual, gay & lesbian). An exception: lesbian worked more cooperatively in laboratory tasks o Unmarried people are happier than those in bad marriages o Marital conflict has more negative health outcomes for wives than husbands • Trust o More oxitocin à more trusting o Men & .women respond differently when distrusting someone o Trust is associated with better health & longer life • Spirituality o Religious people are better at coping with crises. o Their religion serves as a buffer. o From their faith people also derive meaning & purpose in their lives • Strategies to enhance health & well-being o Eat natural foods o Watch portion size o Keep active o Don’t smoke o Learn to relax o Learn to cope o Build strong support network o Write about troubling events
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.