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Psychology (2,971)
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Chapter 7

chapter 7

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Michael Inzlicht

Psychology Chapter 7 Memory Important Terms. Section 1 Basic Stages of Memory Memory the capacity of the nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allowing living organisms to benefit from the experience. Modal memory model the three-stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory, and long- term memory. 1. Sensory Memory memory that is stored briefly in its original sensory form. Both types allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream rather than in discrete sensations. a. Visual Sensory memory iconic memory b. Auditory memory echoic memory 2. Short-term memory (STM) a limited-capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period of time. If memory is attended to it is passed from step 1 to step 2. (Can hold info for no longer than 20 seconds a. Memory span and chunking you can only remember less than seven items at a time in your memory span. Chunking is organizing information into meaningful units. b. Working memory an active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use. i. Central executive presides over the interaction between the subsystems and long-term memory; encodes and filters info. ii. Phonological loop active when you read, speak or repeat words to yourself (in order to remember them) iii. Visual sketchpad processes visual info. Objects features and locations 3. Long-term memory (LTM) permanent storage of information. Serial position effect ability to recall items from a list depends on order of presentation, which items presented early or late remembered better than those in the middle. Primacy effect in a list, the better memory for items presented first. (Because one rehearses these items most) Recency effect the better memory for items presented last. Distributed practice learning taking place over a long period of time Massed practice cramming information. Section 2 Different Memory Systems Explicit Memory the process involved when people remember specific information. Memory occurs without conscious effort or intention. Declarative Memory the cognitive information retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared. o Explicit memory refers to the process; declarative refers to the content of memory. Episodic Memory memory from ones personal past experiences. Semantic Memory memory for knowledge about the world. Episodic and Semantic memories are distinct form each other - this can be seen in brain injury semantic may be intact but episodic may be impaired. o Ex. British children who experienced brain injury as infants they couldnt remember what they had for lunch, or to go to school but their IQs fell within the normal range. This was because they had poor episodic memory. Implicit Memory - the process by which people show an enhancement of memory, most often through behavior, without deliberate effort and without any awareness that they are remembering anything. o Ex. Brushing teeth, driving. Classical conditioning is an example of this type of memory. This kind of memory doesnt require attention. Procedural Memory or Motor memory (Ex. of implicit memory) a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits. www.notesolution.com
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