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Chapter 6

PSYC62 - Chapter 6.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Michelle Hilscher

CHAPTER 6PsychostimulantsDr Fleischl was addicted to morphine and then addicted to cocaine introduced by neurologist Sigmund FreudPsychostimulant drugs activate arousal processes in CNS and PNSPsychostimulantsA Large Variety of SubstancesPsychostimulantDrugs that increase psychomotor and sympathetic nervous system activity as well as improve alertness and positive moodoAlso referred to as sympathomimeticsoEg amphetaminesmethamphetamine methylphenidate cathinonespyrovalerone synthetic cathinones methcathinone and mephedrone cocaineLegitimate therapeutic purposesoAmphetamine treats ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder narcolepsy obesityoCocaine once used as anesthetic for nasal and tear duct surgeryUS Drug Enforcement Administration DEA assigns most psychostimulant drugs below schedule I for medical usesLevel of regulatory control for drugs varies among countriesPsychostimulants are known as drugs of abuseBath salts contain synthetic cathinonemethcathinone methylenedioxypyrovalerone methylone mephedroneschedule I controlled substancesPsychostimulantsHerbal Remedies Prescription Drugs and Substances of AbuseEphedraFirst amphetamines derived from ephedraEphedra sinica plant found in dry climates in North and South America southern Europe central Asia northern Africa2 psychoactive componentsephedrine and pseudoephedrine found in cold remediesAmphetaminesAmphetaminesClass of psychostimulant drugs that share a similar structure2 optical isomerschemical structure occurs in 2 different forms that are mirror images dextrorotatory and levrorotarymolecules turn right or left in plane of polarized lightAmphetamine Benzedrine refers to racemic amphetamine mixture of d and l optical isomersdamphetamine isomer is sold as DexedrineAdderall contains 31 ratio of damphetamine and lamphetamineapproved by FDA for treating ADHD and narcolepsyRacemic and damphetamine once approved by FDA for treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy but currently pulled off marketMethamphetamine Desoxyn synthesized from ephedrine pseudoephedrine or phenylacetoneodrug of abuse but approved by FDA for treatment of ADHDoillicit production in meth lab uses household chemicals with ephedrine or pseudoephedrine or phenylacetoneproduces crystallized form of methamphetamine crystal meth crystal speed cranktoxic and flammable solvent vapors and gasesthirddegree burnsMethylphenidatePrescription psychostimulant drug used for treatment of ADHDOnly available in prescription formWeak psychostimulant drugno illicit productionRecreational users grind drug and snort itStreet namekiddie cokeCathinonesCathinonePsychostimulant derived from the leaves of Catha edulis khat found in east Africa and Arabian Peninsulachew leaves or use leaves in teaFresh khat leaves produce potent psychostimulant effects
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